File Name: validity and reliability of questionnaires in research .zip
Categories: Qualitative. I remember years ago walking the halls of the faculty offices at my university asking for help on validating a questionnaire. In fact, no one seemed able to help.
Validity and reliability of a questionnaire : a literature review
Metrics details. Reliable and valid measures of total sedentary time, context-specific sedentary behaviour SB and its potential correlates are useful for the development of future interventions.
The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability and criterion validity of three newly developed questionnaires on total sedentary time, context-specific SB and its potential correlates in adolescents, adults and older adults. Reliability and validity was tested in six different samples of Flemish Belgium residents. For the reliability study, 20 adolescents, 22 adults and 20 older adults filled out the age-specific SB questionnaire twice.
Spearman correlations and Bland-Altman plots or non-parametric approach were used to analyse criterion validity, separately for the three age groups and for weekday, weekend day and average day. Item-specific reliability results e. All items belonging to sedentary-related equipment and simultaneous SB showed good reliability.
The sections of the questionnaire with lowest reliability were: context-specific SB adolescents , potential correlates of computer use adults and potential correlates of motorized transport older adults. The questionnaires showed acceptable test-retest reliability and criterion validity.
However, over-reporting of total SB was noticeable in adolescents and adults. Nevertheless, these questionnaires will be useful in getting context-specific information on SB. Independent of physical activity PA , SB is associated with physical and mental health risks in adolescents [ 2 , 3 ], adults [ 2 ], and older adults [ 4 , 5 ]. Despite these health-related consequences, Belgian adolescents, adults and older adults have high levels of daily objectively measured total sedentary time 8.
SB is a complex behaviour as it is habitual in nature and occurs in multiple contexts [ 11 ], across four domains [ 12 ] e. The contexts of SB are similar for adolescents, adults and older adults e.
As a result, measuring context-specific SB is important. Measurements of context-specific SB will increase the effectiveness of future interventions by identifying high-risk SB contexts which can be targeted. Furthermore, gathering information on all relevant contexts of SB, based on a consensus taxonomy [ 11 ], will provide an estimation of total sitting time, which will be valuable in identifying highly sedentary subgroups in large-scale observational studies in which the use of objective measurement devices is still not practical due to cost or participant burden [ 7 , 11 , 13 , 14 ].
In addition to context-specific SB, it is also important to determine the potential correlates of context-specific SB, for different age groups. Future interventions will only be effective if they target the reasons why people tend to sit more in specific contexts, but currently there is a dearth of information about these correlates [ 15 ].
To date, research on correlates of SB has focused on TV viewing, computer use and playing videogames or SB in general [ 16 , 17 ]. Focussing solely on correlates of screen-related behaviour may limit interventions designed to evoke meaningful changes in total SB.
On the other hand, gathering correlates of total SB is relevant [ 12 ], but is too broad to design more-effective interventions in the future. Questionnaires incorporating potential correlates of all specific contexts of SB are needed to develop more effective interventions.
Previous studies on correlates concentrated on socio-demographic correlates together with one other type of variables, for example biological or behavioural correlates. Owen et al. In addition, previous correlate studies focused on a small number of SB contexts. The existing literature on correlates of SB are different for adolescents, adults and older adults [ 12 ].
To our knowledge there are currently no questionnaires identifying potential social-ecological correlates of all relevant contexts of SB in adolescents, adults and older adults. Gathering information on context-specific SB and its correlates is mostly done using self-report measurements such as questionnaires or diaries [ 13 ]. SB questionnaires can be used from the age of 12 i.
In addition, questionnaires self-report are cost-effective, easily accessible to a large proportion of the population and participant burden is relatively low [ 19 ]. Despite these drawbacks, questionnaires are more pragmatic and scalable than objective measurement tools in large-scale observational studies.
The main goal of the current study was to test if the newly developed questionnaires were reliable and valid to determine context-specific SB and its potential correlates and total sedentary time in three different age groups.
The objectives of the current study were to: a analyse the test-retest reliability of questionnaires designed to assess self-reported total sedentary time for weekdays, weekend days and average days , context-specific SBs for weekdays and weekend days and their potential social-ecological correlates in adolescents, adults and older adults; and b assess the criterion validity of these questionnaires for self-reported total weekday, weekend day and average day sedentary time.
Sampling approaches were different for the reliability and validity study. In both studies, data were collected in — among adolescents, adults and older adults. An information letter or a verbal explanation was provided to adolescents, adults and older adults participating in the studies.
For adolescents parental permission was sought. Twenty adolescents, 22 adults and 20 older adults, living in Flanders Belgium , were recruited by using purposeful convenience sampling. Relatives and acquaintances of the research team were contacted to participate in the test-retest reliability study.
Additional participants were recruited through purposive snowball sampling, so that participants with different backgrounds e. All participants completed the same questionnaire on context-specific SB and its potential correlates twice. In line with Duncan et al. Adolescents and adults self-completed a paper version of the questionnaire at home test-retest design. For adolescents and adults, the second questionnaire retest was delivered by a researcher when collecting the first questionnaire, so that replication was not possible.
The researcher explained when the second questionnaire should be completed and wrote this date on the questionnaire. For older adults, structured interviews were conducted at home by trained researchers to collect data on both occasions. Eighty-one adolescents, 41 adults and 37 older adults, participated in the current criterion validity study.
Afterwards they were asked to complete an age-specific questionnaire on context-specific SB and its correlates. A researcher delivered the movement monitors and explained how to use them to the selected classes. The adolescents wore the movement monitor for seven consecutive days starting the day after the explanation. The day after this visit, participants were asked to wear the movement monitor for seven consecutive days.
Contact information full name, address and date of birth from older adults was also gathered via the public service department of Sint-Niklaas. In these questionnaires and during structured interviews in case of older adults participants received information about how they should report their behaviours, so that every period of sitting was only reported once i. The content of each section is described below and details are shown in Additional files 4 , 5 , 6.
All these items were included in the test-retest reliability analyses. Context-specific SB adolescents: 12 contexts; adults: 11 contexts; older adults: 12 contexts was assessed based on the lastday SB questionnaire SIT-Q-7d [ 13 ].
Potential social-ecological correlates of context-specific SB were assessed for the following contexts: TV viewing, gaming, computer use, motorized transport and school in adolescents; TV viewing, computer use, motorized transport, occupation, household tasks and making phone calls in adults; and TV viewing, computer use, motorized transport, household tasks and making phone calls in older adults.
The items related to sedentary-related equipment i. This electronic inclinometer has already been validated in adolescents [ 28 ], adults [ 29 ] and older adults [ 30 ], and is recommended when measuring SB [ 31 ].
Paul, MN. These waterproof attachments ensured that participants could wear the monitor during water activities e. Participants recorded non-wear time supplemented with reason and the time of getting up and going to sleep in a diary. Furthermore, 4 adolescents were not present during distribution of the movement monitor and 3 adolescents were absent for filling out the questionnaire on the 8 th day. This resulted in a final sample of 62 adolescents, 33 adults and 33 older adults for the criterion validity study.
Furthermore, test-retest reliability was also assessed for self-reported total sedentary time on a weekday, weekend day and an average day. Three statistical tests were used for assessing the agreement between the first and second measurement. With regard to the ICC, two-way random effects single measures were calculated. Percentage agreement was also reported if the scale has zero variance items or if at least one variable in the analysis was a constant.
These plots were created, based on linear regression analyses, through plotting the difference between self-reported total sedentary time and activPAL-derived sedentary time on the y-axis and the average of these self-reported and objectively measured sedentary time on the x-axis separately for weekday, weekend day and average day. However, this parametric approach is only applicable if residuals were normally distributed examined by using Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test , which was only the case for all data of older adults.
As a result, a nonparametric approach was used for all data weekday, weekend day and average day of adolescents and adults [ 36 , 37 ]. In the context of this nonparametric approach, plots were created by plotting the difference between self-reported sedentary time and activPAL-derived sedentary time expressed as a percentage of activPAL-derived sedentary time on the y-axis.
This percentage was plotted against activPAL-derived sedentary time on the x-axis. In these additional files, usability of all the individual items for future research is reported. Fifteen, 14 and 25 items for adolescents, adults and older adults respectively had low ICC or kappa values, due to low variability in response options, but high percentage agreement percentage agreement was thus interpreted instead of ICC or kappa values for these items.
The test-retest reliability study indicated for adolescents, adults and older adults respectively that 89 items Furthermore, 13 items 9. With regards to the potential correlates of context-specific SB, the test-retest reliability study for adolescents, adults and older adults had relatively low percentages of items with poor reliability, namely 4.
Furthermore, the results indicated that Accordingly, both adolescents and adults over-reported their total sedentary time more for weekdays than for weekend days. For adolescents and adults, weekend days Figs. In Fig. The averages of the two measurement methods were: Accordingly, the mean difference between self-reported total sedentary time and activPAL-derived sedentary time for a weekday, weekend day and an average day respectively was: These figures show that for high averages of self-reported and activPAL-derived sedentary time, self-reported total sedentary time overestimated the objectively measured sedentary time weekday, weekend day and an average day.
Parametric Bland-Altman plots for older adults: Self-reported total sedentary time and activPAL-derived sedentary time, separately for a weekday, b weekend day, and c average day. The current study examined the test-retest reliability and criterion validity of three newly developed questionnaires on context-specific SB and its potential correlates and on total sedentary time for adolescents, adults and older adults separately.
These questionnaires are innovative as they include all relevant age-specific SB contexts [ 7 , 11 , 13 , 14 ] together with potential correlates of context-specific SB. Test-retest reliability was measured for self-reported total sedentary time and for context-specific SBs apart for the three included age groups.
The results for reliability of total sedentary time were comparable with previous research and revealed moderate-to-good reliability, except for total sedentary time on a weekday in adolescents [ 38 ]. Low test-retest reliability for sitting on a weekday in adolescents was also found in a study analyzing the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short version in youth [ 39 ]. Regarding the reliability of the context-specific SBs , TV viewing for adolescents, adults and older adults and computer use for adults and older adults were the most reliable items in the newly developed questionnaires.
Present results are in line with previous findings in the literature [ 7 , 10 , 40 , 41 ]. This may be because TV viewing is an activity that is more structured and lasts for a longer uninterrupted time, compared to for example activities that occur more irregularly, such as motorized transport [ 7 , 10 ]. The lowest values for reliability were found for the following items: motorized transport in leisure time on weekend days and sitting during classes at school per day adolescents , travelling in leisure time on weekend days adults , sitting while listening to music and sitting for hobbies older adults.
Both the present findings for adolescents and adults and previous research in adolescents found poorer reliability results for travel during weekend days.
Validating a Questionnaire
Obtaining accurate, reliable and valid assessments of public opinion is critical for any survey project, but it is not a simple task. Beyond the necessary substantive expertise needed, the assessment of public opinion requires considerable knowledge, skill, and experience in question wording and questionnaire structure. It requires attention to subtle relationships between questions, and to how those relationships might affect the meaning of the question for the respondent. It also requires an understanding of basic concepts associated with reliability and validity and with techniques employed to produce questions with these qualities and methods to measure the degree of reliability and validity present. This chapter discusses considerations, concepts and methods related to designing reliable and valid public opinion questionnaires. The discussion
The importance of measuring the accuracy and consistency of research instruments especially questionnaires known as validity and reliability, respectively, have been documented in several studies, but their measure is not commonly carried out among health and social science researchers in developing countries. This has been linked to the dearth of knowledge of these tests. This is a review article which comprehensively explores and describes the validity and reliability of a research instrument with special reference to questionnaire. It further discusses various forms of validity and reliability tests with concise examples and finally explains various methods of analysing these tests with scientific principles guiding such analysis. Advanced Search.
Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. Kaur and S. Ali Published Questionnaires form an important part of research methodology.
Metrics details. Reliable and valid measures of total sedentary time, context-specific sedentary behaviour SB and its potential correlates are useful for the development of future interventions. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability and criterion validity of three newly developed questionnaires on total sedentary time, context-specific SB and its potential correlates in adolescents, adults and older adults.
Hence, this study aimed to develop, validate and determine the reliability of a questionnaire designed to measure psychosocial factors related to healthy meal preparation among Malaysian children. The questionnaire developed was tested for face and content validity. Item analysis was conducted for the knowledge domain. Construct validity of attitude, practice and self-efficacy domains was assessed using exploratory factor analysis with principle axis factoring extraction and direct oblimin rotation. The intraclass correlation coefficient determined test-retest reliability. The knowledge domain had the optimal level of difficulty and could discriminate children with top and lower scores.
This study aimed to validate a questionnaire on dietary fibre DF -related knowledge in a Turkish student population. Test-retest reliability, internal reliability, and construct validity of the questionnaire were determined. It was found that one-fifth of the students were unsure of the correct answer for any item, and Only Dietary fibre DF is deemed to be a key component in a healthful diet 1. DF consumption may be important in the prevention or control of cancer, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and other health problems 2.
The main objective of questionnaire in research is to obtain relevant information in most reliable and valid manner. Thus the accuracy and.
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