File Name: sociology of marriage and family .zip
Sociology of the family
Marriage , a legally and socially sanctioned union, usually between a man and a woman, that is regulated by laws, rules, customs, beliefs, and attitudes that prescribe the rights and duties of the partners and accords status to their offspring if any.
The universality of marriage within different societies and cultures is attributed to the many basic social and personal functions for which it provides structure, such as sexual gratification and regulation , division of labour between the sexes, economic production and consumption , and satisfaction of personal needs for affection, status, and companionship.
Perhaps its strongest function concerns procreation, the care of children and their education and socialization , and regulation of lines of descent. Through the ages, marriages have taken a great number of forms.
See exchange marriage ; group marriage ; polyandry ; polygamy ; tree marriage. See also common-law marriage. By the 21st century the nature of marriage in Western countries—particularly with regard to the significance of procreation and the ease of divorce —had begun to change. In the Netherlands became the first country to legalize same-sex marriages ; the law went into force on April 1, In the ensuing years, numerous other countries—including Canada , France , the United States , and Germany —followed suit.
In addition, some countries extended benefits and obligations to same-sex couples by means of a registered partnership or civil union , both of which terms meant different things in different contexts.
In the biological evolutionary scale, the more complex the species, the longer the offspring is dependent on its mother for survival from the time of birth to maturity.
Human beings, at the top of the evolutionary scale, require the most time of all species to reach maturity. This imposes increased duties on human parents for the care of their children, and marriage traditionally has been seen as the institution best suited to fulfill these parental duties and responsibilities.
Some form of marriage has been found to exist in all human societies, past and present. Its importance can be seen in the elaborate and complex laws and rituals surrounding it.
Although these laws and rituals are as varied and numerous as human social and cultural organizations, some universals do apply. The main legal function of marriage is to ensure the rights of the partners with respect to each other and to ensure the rights and define the relationships of children within a community.
Marriage has historically conferred a legitimate status on the offspring, which entitled him or her to the various privileges set down by the traditions of that community, including the right of inheritance.
In most societies marriage also established the permissible social relations allowed to the offspring, including the acceptable selection of future spouses. Until the late 20th century, marriage was rarely a matter of free choice. When the forms of communication with outside groups are limited, endogamous marriage is a natural consequence. Exogamy , the practice of marrying outside the group, is found in societies in which kinship relations are the most complex, thus barring from marriage large groups who may trace their lineage to a common ancestor.
In societies in which the large, or extended, family remains the basic unit, marriages are usually arranged by the family.
The assumption is that love between the partners comes after marriage, and much thought is given to the socioeconomic advantages accruing to the larger family from the match.
By contrast, in societies in which the small, or nuclear, family predominates, young adults usually choose their own mates. It is assumed that love precedes and determines marriage, and less thought is normally given to the socioeconomic aspects of the match.
In societies with arranged marriages, the almost universal custom is that someone acts as an intermediary, or matchmaker. Some form of dowry or bridewealth is almost always exchanged in societies that favour arranged marriages. In societies in which individuals choose their own mates, dating is the most typical way for people to meet and become acquainted with prospective partners.
Successful dating may result in courtship, which then usually leads to marriage. Marriage Article Media Additional Info. Article Contents. Table Of Contents.
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Sociology of the family
Marriage , a legally and socially sanctioned union, usually between a man and a woman, that is regulated by laws, rules, customs, beliefs, and attitudes that prescribe the rights and duties of the partners and accords status to their offspring if any. The universality of marriage within different societies and cultures is attributed to the many basic social and personal functions for which it provides structure, such as sexual gratification and regulation , division of labour between the sexes, economic production and consumption , and satisfaction of personal needs for affection, status, and companionship. Perhaps its strongest function concerns procreation, the care of children and their education and socialization , and regulation of lines of descent. Through the ages, marriages have taken a great number of forms. See exchange marriage ; group marriage ; polyandry ; polygamy ; tree marriage.
Christina and James met in college and have been dating for more than five years. For the past two years, they have been living together in a condo they purchased jointly. While Christina and James were confident in their decision to enter into a commitment such as a year mortgage , they are unsure if they want to enter into marriage. The couple had many discussions about marriage and decided that it just did not seem necessary. Was it not only a piece of paper?
Recall that the functional perspective emphasizes that social institutions perform several important functions to help preserve social stability and otherwise keep a society working. A functional understanding of the family thus stresses the ways in which the family as a social institution helps make society possible. As such, the family performs several important functions. First, the family is the primary unit for socializing children.
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The modern concept of family is far more encompassing than in past decades. What do you think constitutes a family? Marriage and family are key structures in most societies. While the two institutions have historically been closely linked in U. The relationship between marriage and family is an interesting topic of study to sociologists. What is marriage?
Его обгоревшие останки все еще виднелись на ребрах охлаждения. Вся сцена напоминала некий извращенный вариант представления, посвященного празднику Хэллоуин. Хотя Стратмор и сожалел о смерти своего молодого сотрудника, он был уверен, что ее можно отнести к числу оправданных потерь.
Delimiting family sociology to the study of marriage and family behaviour still leaves hundreds of articles and books to review, since there are several levcls of.
The Family and Conflict
Я же его личный помощник. - Дай мне. Бринкерхофф не верил своим ушам. - Мидж, я ни под каким видом не пущу тебя в кабинет директора. - Ты должен это сделать! - потребовала она и, отвернувшись, начала что-то печатать на клавиатуре Большого Брата. - Мне нужен список очередности работы на ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ.
Беккер еще раз обвел глазами кучу вещей и нахмурился. Зачем АНБ вся эта рухлядь. Вернулся лейтенант с маленькой коробкой в руке, и Беккер начал складывать в нее вещи. Лейтенант дотронулся до ноги покойного. - Quien es.
Сьюзан перевела взгляд на помост перед кабинетом Стратмора и ведущую к нему лестницу. - Коммандер. Молчание. Тогда она осторожно двинулась в направлении Третьего узла. Подойдя поближе, она увидела, что в руке Хейла зажат какой-то предмет, посверкивавший в свете мониторов. Сьюзан сделала еще несколько шагов и вдруг поняла, что это за предмет. В руке Хейл сжимал беретту.
Сьюзан слушала молча.
Она замерла и непроизвольно задержала дыхание, чувствуя на себе взгляд Хейла. Сьюзан повернулась, и Хейл, пропуская ее вперед, сделал широкий взмах рукой, точно приветствуя ее возвращение в Третий узел. - После вас, Сью, - сказал. ГЛАВА 41 В кладовке третьего этажа отеля Альфонсо XIII на полу без сознания лежала горничная. Человек в очках в железной оправе положил в карман ее халата связку ключей.
Беккер старался не обращать внимания на легкий запах перца. Меган сказала, что, если тереть глаза, будет только хуже. Он даже представить себе не может, насколько хуже.
Сьюзан стояла перед ним, промокшая, взъерошенная, в его пиджаке, накинутом на плечи. Она выглядела как первокурсница, попавшая под дождь, а он был похож на студента последнего курса, одолжившего ей свою куртку. Впервые за многие годы коммандер почувствовал себя молодым. Его мечта была близка к осуществлению. Однако, сделав еще несколько шагов, Стратмор почувствовалчто смотрит в глаза совершенно незнакомой ему женщины.
Что привело вас в Севилью. - Я торговец ювелирными изделиями. Жемчугами из Майорки. - Неужели из Майорки.
Человек смерил его сердитым взглядом: - Pues sientate. Тогда сядьте.