File Name: plant tissue culture and its agricultural applications .zip
The depicts the sequential fusion of two protoplasts, resulting in a synkaryon. The ensuing hybrid is known as a cytoplasmic hybrid or cybrid. The culture is initially started on a semi-solid medium and the callus so formed is transferred to a liquid medium in an agitated and aerated bioreactor.
- Trends in the use of tissue culture, applications and future aspects
- Plant Tissue Culture and Its Agricultural Applications
- application of tissue culture
Plant tissue culture is the culture and maintenance of plant cells or organs in sterile, nutritionally and environmentally supportive conditions in vitro. Plant cell and tissue culture include the cultural techniques for regeneration of functional plants from embryonic tissues, tissue fragments, calli, isolated cells, or protoplasts. It has applications in research and commerce.
Trends in the use of tissue culture, applications and future aspects
Tissue culture and biotechnological techniques applied to passion fruit with ornamental potential: an overview. The ornamental flower sector has growing over the past years worldwide with potential for further expansion. Among the ornamental plants, Passiflora species have been gaining ground in the market, mainly in European and North American countries.
However, the market aiming the use of these species in ornamentation is still poorly explored. The inclusion of passion flower in the list of ornamental plants is related to the peculiar characteristics of the flower as it is complex structure, capacity of flowering all year long and also by the abundance and exuberance of the leaves, which in many species adds an ornamental value. Among the biotechnological tools for the production of ornamental plants, tissue culture has been outstanding in the cloning of elite genotypes, with high phytosanitary quality and large scale production.
In addition, it offers possibilities of producing new varieties with characteristics peculiar to the market of ornamental plants. The diversity of wild Passiflora opens perspectives to the conservation, market and production of ornamental Passiflora cultivars. Commercial floriculture is recognized as one of the most promising segments of the contemporary agribusiness.
Among the ornamental plant species, those of the genus Passiflora have gained prominence in the ornamental sector, especially in European and in North American countries. Although the Passiflora species are mostly native from South America, they have not been used as ornamental plants, in those countries, especially due to the low number of breeding programs for such purposes Santos et al. Passiflora species are commonly used for their fruits and derivatives, medicinal plant and as a source of oils for cosmetic industry Pacheco et al.
The use of passion flowers as an ornamental plant is due their beauty and exuberance. These flowers are found in the most diverse forms, sizes, and colors and have a distinguished scent Montero et al. In the view of the recognized economic importance of the wild and commercial passion fruit species several tissue culture and biotechnological techniques have been applied to the genus Silva et al. The present review proposes to summarize the results achieved thus far in the biotechnology of wild Passiflora species with ornamental potential.
The inclusion of passion flowers in the list of ornamental plants is related to the highly morphological complexity observed in the reproductive organs of these species. Further, some of these species flourish all year long and have a vigorous and exuberant vegetative growth, with leaves of diverse morphologies, which adds ornamental value to it Abreu et al. The use of Passiflora as ornamental plants started in the 15th century and continues to this day in the market of hybrid plants, especially in Europe and in the North American countries.
Over hybrids for ornamental purposes have been registered across the world Vanderplank, Passiflora ceae has a pantropical distribution, with approximately species, and great diversification in terms of leaf, fruit, and flower characteristics Ocampo et al.
The genus Passiflora comprises approximately species Ulmer and Macdougal, , to of which originate in Brazil and can be used for multiple purposes such as food, medicine, cosmetics, or ornamentation Abreu et al. The genus Passiflora is divided into four subgenera: Decaloba, Astrophea, Deidamioides, and Passiflora. The species of greatest importance belong to the subgenus Passiflora Ulmer and Macdougal, Passiflora flowers are pentamerous, bisexual, and actinomorphic, with a distinct perianth presenting sepals and petals of different shapes and sizes.
The petals are usually membranous and develop on the border of the calix tube. All Passiflora flowers have an androgynophore that elevates the five fused stamens up to the base and which are also united with a gynoecium composed of three fused carpels Vanderplank, ; Ulmer and Macdougal, ; Abreu et al.
Passiflora flowers are considered exotic because of the presence of a multiple series of corona filaments observed between the petals and the androgynophore column.
The corona is a distinctive feature of the genus Passiflora , and the diversity of shapes, sizes and colors of these filaments seems to be related to the different pollinating systems observed in the genus Aizza and Dornelas, Sporophytic self-incompatibility is another important feature of the floral biology of Passiflora , which determines allogamy.
This characteristic contributes to the increased genetic variability, which may favor the use of those species as ornamental plants Bruckner et al. Several wild Passiflora spp. Other species stand out for the beauty and exuberance of their flowers showing a great ornamental potential to be explored, such as; Passiflora nitida Figure 2C , Passiflora capparidifolia Figure 2D , Passiflora miniata Figure 2E Passiflora cristalina Figure 2F.
In view of the ornamental potential of wild Passiflora , research centers have selected species with adequate morphological and adaptive traits for the generation of ornamental hybrids Cerqueira-Silva et al.
The first Passiflora hybrid developed for ornamental purposes was reported in by English breeder Thomas Milne, who made a cross between P. Currently, passion flower hybryds; e.
The hybrids released by Embrapa and partners have exuberant flowers and are indicated for landscaping of large areas such as walls, fences, and pergolas. In , Embrapa released two new hybrid cultivars for landscaping of large areas. Other Brazilian institutions also produced hybrids for ornamental purposes; e.
Fonseca et al. Micropropagation studies in Passiflora started in Nakayama, from the culture of nodal segments of an important ornamental species, P. Since then, a growing number of studies describing in vitro techniques applied to the genus have been published for commercial and wild species with ornamental and phamaceutic propreties Drew, ; Otoni et al. Among the micropropagation systems established for Passiflora , organogenesis is the main morphogenetic pathway of regeneration Otoni et al.
However, supplementation with growth regulators varies according to the morphogenetic pathway to be induced. For in vitro organogenesis induction, 6-benzyladenine BA at concentration range from 2.
On the other hand, somatic embryogenesis has been optimized for several Passiflora species from mature and immature zygotic embryos in media supplemented with different combinations of 2,4-D 8. Among the ornamental passion flowers, Passiflora cincinnata has showing an excellent in vitro performance thanks to its high regenerant formation frequency Lombardi et al.
Somatic embryogenesis systems have been established for this species from root explants Reis et al. However, only with zygotic embryos a reproducible protocol for somatic embryogenesis was obtained Silva et al.
For P. Based on this system, other authors have reported successful induction of somatic embryos for other ornamental Passiflora species, such as P.
However, for P. In vitro regeneration of P. For Passiflora miniata , an Amazonian species with great ornamental potential, a regeneration system was observed via organogenesis from zygotic embryos. Recently, Faria and collaborators highlighted the high responsiveness of Passiflora cristalina , another Amazonian species with ornamental potential.
According to the authors, the highest mean number of shoots was observed in hypocotyl segments and in zygotic embryos when cultured in MS medium supplemented with 4. Ornamental passion flower breeders have used many strategies to obtain polyploids Fischer, In general, polyploid individuals have greater vegetative and reproductive vigor as compared with their respective diploids, exhibiting significantly larger floral organs Stebbins, ; Bharadwaj, , despite their reduced fertility.
Some allotetraploids have been reported for Passiflora spp. Because of the triploid nature of the endosperm, the culture of endosperm tissues has been considered a direct method for polyploid production.
In Passiflora , in vitro endosperm culture was first performed by Mohamed et al. The authors observed the development of shoots via direct organogenesis, with an average of 1. The triploidy of P. Triploid P. A, B Leaves of diploid 2n and triploid 3n plants. C-D Flowers of diploid 2n and triploid 3n plants. The capacity of endosperm tissue to produce triploid and genetically stable plants has also been demonstrated for P.
The highest number of shoots was obtained when the endosperms were cultured in MS medium supplemented with 9. Faria et al. However, the ploidy level of regenerated plants was not evaluated. Somatic hybridization by protoplasm fusion could be used to generate new ornamental passion flowers with different shapes, colours and sizes. Protoplast-to-plant regeneration systems have been established for a range passion fruit species and novel interespecific somatic hybrids have been obtained between commercial yellow passion fruit and several wild species Dornelas et al.
However, no hybrids have been produced, by this technique, for ornamental purposes. Considering the diversity of the Passiflora species and the relative simplicity of the protocol, the technology has not been used in its full potential Rocha et al.
Studies on the genetic transformation of passion fruit are also incipient. The systems alredy stablished have been used for generating disease resistant plants Vieira et al. Correa et al. Despite the published reports on genetic transformation of Passiflora genus , it is still a way far from being routine, especially for wild species Rocha et al. The collecting and conserving the diversity of Passiflora germplasm is of great importance, no only as a source of genes and natural products, but also for its ecological value Pacheco et al.
Traditionally, Passiflora genetic resources has been conserved in germplasm banks through ex situ conservation strategies Bernacci et al.
It is generally performed inseed banks, although the periodic renewal is limited by the reduction in germination potential, resulting in loss of material. The cryopreservation of passion fruit species has been used to store seeds and in vitro propagules. Due to the difficulties of obtaining seeds from wild populations due to habitat destruction, studies were directed to cryopreservation of shoots and nodal segments. The plant vitrification protocol has been used for P. Vianna et al. Nodal segments often not chosen for cryopreservation.
Nevertheless, a successful cryopreservation protocol for nodal segments of in vitro plants of P. Despite recent advances, future prospects include optimization of existing cryopreservation protocols, as well as innovative approaches to in vitro conservation of Passiflora species Pacheco et al.
Passion flower hybrids an their use in the ornamental plant market: perspectives for sustainable development with emphasis on Brazil. Euphytica , v. A genomic approach to study anthocyanin synthesis and flower pigmentation in passionflowers. Journal of Nucleic Acids , v. Self cross and interspecific pollinations in Passiflora capsularis and P.
Direct organogenesis of Passiflora foetida L. Plant Tissue Culture and Biotechnology , v. Protoplast isolation, culture, and plant regeneration from Passiflora. In: Hall RD. Plant Cell Culture Protocols.
Humana Press , New York,
Plant Tissue Culture and Its Agricultural Applications
Plant tissue culture: Current status, opportunities and challenges. ISSN In the last two decades plant biotechnology applications have been widely developed and incorporated into the agricultural systems of many countries worldwide. Tissue culture tools have been a key factor to support such outcomes. The rapid and extensive assimilation for this technology has improved the competences of the agricultural systems both in industrial and in developing countries, based on the proper application of research programs. Several theoretical and practical aspects supporting plant tissue culture applications, as well as the main results and current status of the technology are discussed in this review. The reader will find key elements to evaluate the potential of plant tissue culture tools for the development of agriculture, livestock, human health and nutrition, and human well being in general.
The sessions covered in this volume reflect the revolution of tissue culture and its role in the propagation of elite plant material and the development of improved genotypes. This book is organized into four main sections. The first section chronicles the revolution of the plant tissue culture. This includes papers on clonal propagation, morphogenesis, germplasm storage, plant health, and genetic improvement. The core of this volume is covered by the introductory and the final chapters which interrelate the different subjects areas covered by the proceedings and provide a realistic assessment of future research required for the plant tissue culture revolution to come to fruition. This book will be useful to readers interested in understanding the history, evolution, and future of plant tissue culture and its applications in the agricultural sector. Metuliferus X C.
application of tissue culture
Plant tissue culture has developed widely incorporated into biotechnology, the agricultural systems being a key factor to support many pharmaceutical and industrial outcomes. Since there is vast progress in plant culture and its application has emerged having great diversity in the science filed. Due to development and desire to grow on high scale production in the past few decades, tissue culture techniques were manipulated for improvement of plant growth, biological activities, transformation, and secondary metabolites production.
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The first method involving the meristems and induction of multiple shoots is the preferred method for the micropropagation industry since the risks of somaclonal variation genetic variation induced in tissue culture are minimal when compared to the other two methods. Living plant materials from the environment are naturally contaminated on their surfaces and sometimes interiors with microorganisms, so their surfaces are sterilized in chemical solutions usually alcohol and sodium or calcium hypochlorite. As shoots emerge from a culture, they may be sliced off and rooted with auxin to produce plantlets which, when mature, can be transferred to potting soil for further growth in the greenhouse as normal plants. Plant tissue culture is used widely in the plant sciences, forestry, and in horticulture. Plant tissue culture is a widely known technique for the production of large numbers of genetically identical plantlets. However, they are more easily removed from the explant by gentle rinsing, and the remainder usually can be killed by surface sterilization.
Из-за него чуть было не произошел полный крах нашей разведки. Я его выгнал. На лице Сьюзан на мгновение мелькнуло недоумение. Она побледнела и прошептала: - О Боже… Стратмор утвердительно кивнул, зная, что она догадалась. - Он целый год хвастался, что разрабатывает алгоритм, непробиваемый для грубой силы. - Н-но… - Сьюзан запнулась, но тут же продолжила: - Я была уверена, что он блефует.
Коммандер зажмурился, сильнее сжал запястье и потянул. Труп сдвинулся на несколько сантиметров.
- Но ситуация чрезвычайная. Сьюзан встала. Чрезвычайная ситуация.
Говорили, что от него уходит жена, с которой он прожил лет тридцать. А в довершение всего - Цифровая крепость, величайшая опасность, нависшая над разведывательной службой. И со всем этим ему приходится справляться в одиночку.
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