Definition Of Art And Design Pdf

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Find out about ice sculpture - melting art! It seeks to provide answers to questions such as: What is art? What is the value of painting or sculpture? How to assess a work of art?

The Definition of Art

Find out about ice sculpture - melting art! It seeks to provide answers to questions such as: What is art? What is the value of painting or sculpture? How to assess a work of art? What is the purpose of art? There is no universally accepted definition of art. Although commonly used to describe something of beauty , or a skill which produces an aesthetic result, there is no clear line in principle between say a unique piece of handmade sculpture, and a mass-produced but visually attractive item.

We might say that art requires thought - some kind of creative impulse - but this raises more questions: for example, how much thought is required? If someone flings paint at a canvas, hoping by this action to create a work of art, does the result automatically constitute art?

Even the notion of 'beauty' raises obvious questions. If I think my kid sister's unmade bed constitutes something 'beautiful', or aesthetically pleasing, does that make it art? If not, does its status change if a million people happen to agree with me, but my kid sister thinks it is just a pile of clothes? David by Donatello s Bargello, Florence. Art: Multiplicity of Forms, Types and Genres. Before trying to define art, the first thing to be aware of, is its huge scope. Art is a global activity which encompasses a host of disciplines , as evidenced by the range of words and phrases which have been invented to describe its various forms.

Drilling down, many specific categories are classified according to the materials used, such as: drawing, painting, sculpture inc. Sub-categories include: painting in oils, watercolours, acrylics; sculpture in bronze, stone, wood, porcelain; to name but a tiny few. Other sub-branches include different genre categories , like: narrative, portrait, genre-works, landscape, still life.

In addition, entirely new forms of art have emerged during the 20th century, such as: assemblage , conceptualism, collage , earthworks, installation , graffiti, and video, as well as the broad conceptualist movement which challenges the essential value of an objective "work of art". For more, see: Types of Art. Contemporary sand art - how today's art encompasses works in all sorts of media.

No wonder postmodernist artists have been able to extend the ambit of "art" to include dead sharks. I mean, no one really knows the limits of artistic activity. Definition of Art is Limited by Era and Culture. Another thing to be aware of, is the fact that art reflects and belongs to the period and culture from which it is spawned. After all, how can we compare prehistoric murals eg. Political events are the most obvious era-factors that influence art: for example, art styles like Expressionism, Dada, and Surrealism were products of political uncertainty and upheavals.

Cultural differences also act as natural borders. After all, Western draughtsmanship is light years away from Chinese calligraphy; and what Western artform compares with the art of origami paper folding from Japan?

Religion is a major cultural variable that alters the shape of the artistic envelope. The Baroque style was strongly influenced by the Catholic Counter-Reformation, while Islamic art like Orthodox Christianity , forbids certain types of artistic iconography. In other words, whatever definition of art we arrive at, it is bound to be limited to our era and culture.

Even then, categories like Outsider art have to be taken into consideration. As you can see from the above, the world of art is a highly complex entity, not only in terms of its multiplicity of forms and types, but also in terms of its historical and cultural roots.

Therefore a simple definition, or even a broad consensus as to what can be labelled art, is likely to prove highly elusive. Greatest Sculptures Ever Top 3-D art in marble, stone, bronze, wood, steel and other media. History of the Definition of Art. For a guide to movements and periods, see also: History of Art. Classical Meaning of Art. The original classical definition - derived from the Latin word "ars" meaning "skill" or "craft" - is a useful starting point. This broad approach leads to art being defined as: "the product of a body of knowledge, most often using a set of skills.

No wonder Leonardo Da Vinci and Michelangelo went to such efforts to elevate the status of artists and by implication art itself onto a more intellectual plane. Post-Renaissance Meaning of Art. The emergence of the great European academies of art reflected the gradual upgrading of the subject. New and enlightened branches of philosophy also contributed to this change of image. By the midth century, the mere demonstration of technical skills was insufficient to qualify as art - it now needed an "aesthetic" component - it had to be seen as something "beautiful.

At the same time, the concept of "utilitarianism" functionality or usefulness was used to distinguish the more noble "fine arts" art for art's sake , like painting and sculpture, from the lesser forms of "applied art", such as crafts and commercial design work, and the ornamental "decorative arts", like textile design and interior design.

Thus, by the end of the 19th century, art was separated into at least two broad categories: namely, fine art and the rest - a situation that reflected the cultural snobbery and moral standards of the European establishment.

Furthermore, despite some erosion of faith in the aesthetic standards of Renaissance ideology - which remained a powerful influence throughout the world of fine art - even painting and sculpture had to conform to certain aesthetic rules in order to be considered "true art". Meaning of Art During the Early 20th Century.

Then came Cubism , which rocked the fine arts establishment to its foundations. Not simply because Picasso introduced a non-naturalistic branch of painting and sculpture, but because it shattered the monotheistic Renaissance approach to how art related to the world around it.

Thus, Cubism's main contribution was to act as a sort of catalyst for a host of new movements which greatly expanded the theory and practice of art, such as: Suprematism, Constructivism, Dada, Neo-Plasticism, Surrealism and Conceptualism, as well as various realist styles, such as Social and Socialist Realism. In practice, this proliferation of new styles and artistic techniques led to a new broadening of the meaning and definition of art.

In its escape from its "Renaissance straitjacket", and all the associated rules concerning "objectivity" eg. Artists suddenly found themselves with far greater freedom to create paintings and sculpture according to their own subjective values.

In fact, one might say that from this point "art" started to become "indefinable". The decorative and applied arts underwent a similar transformation due to the availability of a vastly increased range of commercial products. However, the resultant increase in the number of associated design and crafts disciplines did not have any significant impact on the definition and meaning of art as a whole.

This new American orientation encouraged art to become more of a commercial product, and loosen its connection with existing traditions of aestheticism - a trend furthered by the emergence of Abstract Expressionism, Pop-Art, and the activities of the new breed of celebrity artists like Andy Warhol.

All of a sudden, even the most mundane items and concepts became elevated to the status of "art". Under the influence of this populist approach, conceptualists introduced new artforms, like assemblage, installation, video and performance.

In due course, graffiti added its own mark, as did numerous styles of reinterpretation, like Neo-Dada , Neo-Expressionism , and Neo-Pop, to name but three. Schools and colleges of art throughout the world dutifully preached the new polytheism, adding further fuel to the bonfire of Renaissance art traditions. Postmodernism and the Meaning of Art.

The redefinition of art during the last three decades of the 20th century has been lent added intellectual weight by theorists of the postmodernist movement. According to the postmoderns, the focus has shifted from artistic skill to the "meaning" of the work produced. In addition, "how" a work is "experienced" by spectators has become a critical component in its aesthetic value. The phenomenal success of contemporary artists like Damien Hirst, as well as Gilbert and George, is clear evidence in support of this view.

For more about experimental artists, see: avant-garde art. A Working Definition of Art. In light of this historical development in the meaning of "art", one can perhaps make a crude attempt at a "working" definition of the subject, along the following lines:. Art is created when an artist creates a beautiful object, or produces a stimulating experience that is considered by his audience to have artistic merit.

This is simply a "working" definition: broad enough to encompass most forms of contemporary art, but narrow enough to exclude "events" whose "artistic" content falls below accepted levels. In addition, please note that the word "artist" is included to allow for the context of the work; the word "beautiful" is included to reflect the need for some "aesthetic" value; while the phrase "that is considered by his audience to have artistic merit" is included to reflect the need for some basic acceptance of the artist's efforts.

Theory and Philosophy of Art: Discussion Issues. For centuries, if not millennia, people have been emotionally affected - sometimes overwhelmed - by works of art: from Greek Sculpture , to Byzantine architecture, the stunning creativity of Renaissance and Baroque Old Masters like Donatello, Raphael and Rembrandt, and famous painters of the modern era, like Van Gogh, Picasso and Auguste Rodin.

Poetry, ballet and films can be equally uplifting. So while we may not be able to explain precisely what art is, we cannot deny the impact it has on our lives - one reason why public art is worth supporting.

The very essence of creativity means it cannot be defined and pigeon-holed. Any attempt at doing so, will quickly become out-of-date and thus pointless, even counter-productive. What happens, for instance, if an artist produces something that by popular consensus is "art", but isn't accepted as such by the arts establishment? It's worth remembering that we still can't define a "table" or an "elephant", but it doesn't cause us much difficulty! It's fair to say that someone educated in the values of Renaissance art, and who therefore has a reasonable understanding of traditional painting, is less likely to regard postmodernist installations as art, than a person without such an understanding.

Similarly, a person who loves TV and thinks museums are generally rather boring and unexciting places, is more likely to be impressed with contemporary video art than someone else who is comfortable with traditional museum exhibitions. Because of this, one might say that a person's attitude to art says more about his or her personal values, than the art itself.

Who Has the Right to Define Art? Since no consensus among art critics as to the meaning of art is likely to emerge anytime soon, which set of "experts" should be allowed to take charge: Artists, sociologists, historians, lawyers, philosophers, archeologists, anthropologists, or psychologists? After all, the world is full of so-called "experts" - structuralists, proceduralists, functionalists, as well as the usual crop of political theorists like Marxists and so on - who can't agree on what counts as art.

So who do we give the job to? How is Art Classified? Traditional and contemporary art encompasses activities as diverse as:. Architecture, music, opera, theatre, dance, painting, sculpture, illustration, drawing, cartoons, printmaking, ceramics, stained glass, photography, installation, video, film and cinematography, to name but a few.

All these activities are commonly referred to as "the Arts" and are commonly. Disagreement persists as to the precise composition of these categories, but here is a generally accepted classification.

This category includes those artworks that are created primarily for aesthetic reasons 'art for art's sake' rather than for commercial or functional use.

Designed for its uplifting, life-enhancing qualities, fine art typically denotes the traditional, Western European 'high arts', such as:. Two major applications include: illuminated manuscripts c.

About Art - What Do We Really Mean

Introduction to Art: Design, Context, and Meaning offers a comprehensive introduction to the world of Art. Authored by four USG faculty members with advance degrees in the arts, this textbook offers up-to-date original scholarship. It includes over high-quality images illustrating the history of art, its technical applications, and its many uses. Combining the best elements of both a traditional textbook and a reader, it introduces such issues in art as its meaning and purpose; its structure, material, and form; and its diverse effects on our lives. Introduction to Art: Design, Context, and Meaning provides a new and free alternative to traditional textbooks, making it an invaluable resource in our modern age of technology and advancement.

Whole books are written about each of these art terms, filled with definitions, histories, insights, tips, and examples - these pages are just the tip of the iceberg. Each entry leads to its own page with some more information and examples, which should grow over time - feel free to make suggestions. Clicking on any of the example images will lead to more information about the artist or work. A continuous mark made on a surface by a moving point; it may be flat pencil line or three-dimensional a rod, groove, ridge, etc. Line may be explicit - a line painted along the edge of the road - or implied by the edge of a shape or form. Lines are used to outline diagrammatic or contour lines , create shading and show form structural lines, hatching and cross-hatching , decorate, express emotion, and direct the viewer's eye. Lines can be categorized as horizontal, vertical, diagonal, curved, and zigzag.

Introduction to Art: Design, Context, and Meaning

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Elements of Art/Design and Principles of Design/Organization
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