File Name: food and beverage packaging technology .zip
- Food and beverage packaging technology pdf download
- Food and Beverage Packaging Technology
- Food and Beverage Packaging Technology
Food and beverage packaging technology pdf download
You have checked the milk carton for an organic certification label. But have you noticed whether those eggs come in a cardboard carton or in a molded plastic container? Do you know what the milk carton is made of? Are you paying attention to what lines the inside of that can of beans? Ironically, though many of us are spending more time and money to eat the healthiest and most sustainably produced foods that we can find and afford, we frequently overlook the packaging in which this food is found.
We think so. Single-use food packaging is taking a huge toll on our environment. Something less widely understood is that this same food packaging, from the additives like phthalates which give plastics their pliability or perfluorinated chemicals that allow cardboard to contain liquids, all the way to the bisphenol linings that coat our aluminum cans, much of our food packaging is extremely dangerous to our health.
While it might be hard to imagine what daily life would be like without all this convenient packaging, until recently, much of it did not even exist. As our food system grew less local yet able to feed more people across a greater geographic area, and as food became more highly processed, the packaging technology itself increased to keep pace.
And while packaging can be essential for certain functions, the industry has evolved with little concern for the environment or for human health. Better packaging materials and better design could mean less waste and fewer harmful chemicals — and these are goals that can be achieved side by side. As consumers, we have an opportunity to choose the materials we feel most comfortable with and to ask companies and retailers to do better. We can also ask our government to enact stronger regulations around packaging and plastics.
Most importantly, we need to re-think food packaging and single-use food service items, making human health and the environment the priority over convenience.
When you walk the aisles of your grocery store, you find an array of packaging types on the shelves. There are cans of beans, cartons of milk, plastic containers of yogurt, bags of chips and plastic-wrapped meat on foam trays. Along with the materials you can see like plastic bottles and metal cans , a lot of food packaging contains chemical additives or linings you cannot see, which are there to prevent leaking or to keep the acid in foods like tomatoes from corroding metal cans.
The chemical additives and special coatings on or in different packaging types are generally where we are exposed to chemicals of concern, but coatings and additives can, in some cases, also determine if the material can be recycled or not. Food packaging is becoming a growing global concern, because of the large amount of waste it generates and the chemicals it contains that can be detrimental to our health. In the next section, we delve into the health and environmental issues with food packaging, primarily focusing on plastic, metal and paper packaging.
Microplastics can make their way into soil through flooding, littering and by being deposited through the atmosphere.
These plastics, once predominantly made from crude oil, but now increasingly from natural gas , have become the dominant materials because of their unique functional properties and low cost. Since it was first introduced, plastic quickly became a vital part of the American food system.
Many plastic products were developed for the modern ways Americans were purchasing, preparing and storing food; and we grew to not only appreciate but to expect the convenience they provide.
Forty percent of the demand for plastic is generated by single-use plastic products. Some single-use items are essential and have made things not only convenient but safer. A great example is the plastic water bottle, a million of which are bought across the globe every minute. But for many people in this country, bottled water is more about convenience, taste or the perception of taste and our susceptibility to the claims of the companies peddling the bottled water: that it comes from fresh mountain springs or offers unspecified health benefits.
Plastic packaging makes our lives more convenient, but at what expense? Its durability means that it never disappears. Its constant presence in our daily lives including in our food packaging has led to widespread pollution. Some are recycled, some are incinerated , but most end up in landfills or enter the environment as litter.
Most plastics do not biodegrade. The highly visible problem of plastic pollution in our waterways and oceans has drawn worldwide attention. We are distressed by images of marine mammals washing up dead on our shores, their stomachs clogged with plastic. Much of the research about plastic pollution has focused on the marine environment.
But is there a reason to worry about plastics in soil, too? A recent report indicates that plastic contributes to greenhouse gas emissions at every stage of its lifecycle, from production to refining to the ways it is managed as a waste product. Extraction of the fossil fuels that are the building blocks of plastic is an environmentally depleting process, whether for petroleum-based plastics or those derived from natural gas.
As the hydraulic fracturing fracking industry has boomed, so has the availability of cheap plastic, thanks to a fracking byproduct, called ethane, used extensively in plastic production. The manufacturing process that is required to turn that ethane into plastic is energy-intensive and pollutes the air, soil and water of nearby communities — communities already suffering from the environmental and public health impacts of natural gas fracking.
While we know that plastics have carbon-intense life cycles, we do not yet have a full understanding of how their production, in addition to their use and disposal, is contributing to the global climate crisis.
We may be on the verge of getting better information, thanks to researchers from the University of California at Santa Barbara. They have conducted what they believe is the first global assessment of the life cycle of greenhouse gas emissions from plastics. The researchers also explore four strategies for reducing the carbon footprint of plastic.
There are tradeoffs to be considered, including the inputs land, water, chemicals and labor needed to produce the renewable crop for the bio-based plastic e. From a health and environmental perspective, some plastic packaging types are more concerning than others. One such plastic type is polystyrene 6. This plastic is everywhere, including takeout containers, cutlery, coffee cups and lids, and other kinds of disposable cups, like the famous red Solo party cup.
While Styrofoam is becoming increasingly less common due to environmental concerns, its precursor, polystyrene, remains in widespread use, mostly unknown and unseen by consumers. It is unhealthy for both humans and the environment. Polystyrene is made from a petroleum-based chemical called styrene.
The amount that can leach out depends on a variety of factors, including surface area of the container, the temperature of the food and the fat content of the food. Tip : In general, heating food in plastic should be avoided. Many studies have shown that plastic containers leach into the food and liquid they hold, and it gets worse as time and temperature increase. Polystyrene, especially in its puffed form, is bad for the environment.
Due to its being lightweight, recycling polystyrene in traditional systems is difficult, expensive and in some cases impossible, which makes it even more likely to end up as litter or in landfills. And, in its puffed i. Many municipalities have deemed recycling polystyrene too challenging and costly to make it worth their while.
The good news? Polystyrene use is on the wane, and some coffee companies — including Dunkin Donuts for its cups and Starbucks for their lids— have phased them out. Tip: Most plastics have a triangle identifier on them that identifies the plastic type. You can also check the plastic lid. Metal packaging like cans, used for long term food storage, has the challenge of being susceptible to corrosion, especially from acidic foods, like tomatoes. While metal cans are preferable to plastic because of their almost universal ability to be recycled, they are resource-intensive to produce.
Much of the metal food packaging in use in the US is made from aluminum. Aluminum production is the result of mined bauxite that is smelted into alumina 27 and, as with any industrial production, the purification of aluminum requires a lot of energy. Molded fiber packaging — meaning paper or cardboard — is very common in single-use food service items, such as cups, plates, bowls and trays.
Chemicals that could be harmful to our health are in most types of food packaging, including plastic, metal and fiber. These chemicals can be harmful to adults in a number of ways, but they are especially concerning when it comes to the health of our children. Research indicates endocrine disruptors may adversely impact child development in several ways. Children weigh less than adults; this means that they eat, drink, and breathe more per body weight.
In addition, some chemicals pass through the placenta or through breast milk. The leaching of Bisphenol A BPA out of containers and their linings and into the food inside, and the associated endocrine disruption potential, has been known since , when researchers first characterized the migration of BPA from hard plastic polycarbonate bottles. Since then, thanks to consumer demand, many products have been redesigned without BPA. Plastic water bottles tout their BPA-free status, and myriad baby products were reformulated including pacifiers, sippy cups and baby spoons.
But, while BPA in these types of plastic items are on the wane, BPA is still used to line metal food packaging like cans. A report by the Center for Environmental Health found that roughly 40 percent of canned food they tested from major super markets still contained BPA, although that was down from 67 percent in Several BPA alternatives have been assessed for safety by governments and advocacy organizations, but more work remains to be done to ensure the alternatives are preferable for human health.
Phthalates are a type of chemical used primarily in plastics. Exposure to phthalates in humans occurs through leaching from food packaging and plastic wrap, especially when the packaging is exposed to heat such as in the microwave and to a lesser degree through dust particles contaminated by phthalates. Phthalates have been detected in the urine of the general population within the US, 44 but the health effects are still being researched. Similar to the other top chemicals of concern in food packaging, animal studies have linked phthalates to hormone disruption, as well as reproductive health issues.
Perfluorinated chemicals PFAS , in use since the s, are a class of synthetic chemicals used primarily on fiber-based food packaging, including on paper plates, bowls, cardboard clamshells and other kinds of food packaging to make them water and oil-resistant. The grease-resistant paper wrapped around your burger, your pizza boxes, rotisserie chicken bag, bakery wrapper and hot bar takeout box: they all are likely to contain PFAS.
Despite all of this concern, PFAS remains in so much of our food packaging, including some products that had not been widely known to contain them , like molded fiber bowls used at various takeout fast casual stores and touted as compostable.
The search for alternatives to PFAS coatings and additives for fiber-based food contact packaging is intensifying. Stores like Whole Foods have committed to removing them from their prepared food bars and, recently, one of the largest manufacturers of PFAS, Chemours, started phasing them out of production. Uncoated paper products, and products made from materials other than paper, including bamboo, are good alternatives. The Biodegradable Products Institute BPI provides certification for compostable products and packaging similar to a Good Housekeeping seal of approval.
Check out this list of PFAS-free products. In the US, the Food and Drug Administration FDA maintains oversight over indirect food additives chemicals that may come into contact with food through packaging, but they have taken a generally permissive stance. As a result, it has fallen to industry to monitor which chemicals are of concern and determine, and to monitor and regulate themselves. Consumers have limited ability to weigh in, except through the feedback they provide to brands, companies and retailers.
Most chemical management policies in the packaging industry focus on banned chemicals or those that might be impacted by legislation, such as Bisphenol A, for example. Some states have taken action; for a list of states with restrictions on BPA, visit the National Conference State Legislatures policy page.
These are allowed by regulatory agencies but have come under scrutiny for the potential harm they pose, including hormone disruption, organ toxicity and as potential carcinogens. Many brands have banned or have announced their intentions to ban a handful of these chemicals.
Food and Beverage Packaging Technology
Food packaging is packaging for food. A package provides protection, tampering resistance, and special physical, chemical, or biological needs. It may bear a nutrition facts label and other information about food being offered for sale. Packaging of food products have seen a vast transformation in technology usage and application from the stone age to the industrial revolution. PET plastic blow-mold bottle technology widely used in the beverage industry was introduced . Plastic packaging saw its inaugural use during the world war II even though materials employed in its manufacturing such as cellulose nitrate, styrene and vinyl chloride were discovered in the s .
The packaging, foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics industries are characterized by strict requirements and demanding ambient conditions. In order to make the production processes as efficient and economical as possible, flexible automation solutions are needed. This is precisely what our sensors do. Balluff components ensure high cycle rates, fast processes and absolute reliability under all conditions of use. Balluff is very much at home in these sectors. Our components easily withstand difficult environments, meet the strictest hygiene requirements and provide minimal tolerances.
Food and Beverage Packaging Technology
This edition has been thoroughly updated and expanded to include important innovations and changes in materials. It acquaints the reader with food preservation processes. Get the largest collection of food technology ebooks and food science ebooks here available for download for free.