Dna And Rna Structure Pdf

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Nucleic acids have a primary, secondary, and tertiary structure analogous to the classification of protein structure. Figure 1.

Nucleic acid , naturally occurring chemical compound that is capable of being broken down to yield phosphoric acid , sugars, and a mixture of organic bases purines and pyrimidines.

This page, looking at the structure of DNA, is the first in a sequence of pages leading on to how DNA replicates makes copies of itself, and then to how information stored in DNA is used to make protein molecules. This material is aimed at 16 - 18 year old chemistry students. If you are interested in this from a biological or biochemical point of view, you may find these pages a useful introduction before you get more information somewhere else. Chemistry students at UK A level or its various equivalents should not waste time on this. The booklet is written for A level biology students, and goes into far more detail than you will need for chemistry purposes.

DNA: Definition, Structure & Discovery

Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a molecule that contains the instructions an organism needs to develop, live and reproduce. These instructions are found inside every cell, and are passed down from parents to their children. DNA is made up of molecules called nucleotides. Each nucleotide contains a phosphate group, a sugar group and a nitrogen base. The four types of nitrogen bases are adenine A , thymine T , guanine G and cytosine C. The order of these bases is what determines DNA's instructions, or genetic code.

DNA and RNA are remarkable because they can both encode information and possess desired properties, including the ability to bind specific targets or catalyze specific reactions. Nucleotide modifications that do not interfere with enzymatic synthesis are now being used to bestow DNA or RNA with properties that further increase their utility, including phosphate and sugar modifications that increase nuclease resistance, nucleobase modifications that increase the range of activities possible, and even whole nucleobase replacement that results in selective pairing and the creation of unnatural base pairs that increase the information content. These modifications are increasingly being applied both in vitro and in vivo , including in efforts to create semi-synthetic organisms with altered or expanded genetic alphabets. The template-directed enzymatic synthesis of DNA and RNA makes them unique among all materials and allows them to mediate the heritable storage and retrieval of biological information. The in vitro reconstitution of these processes has revolutionized biotechnology, enabling applications ranging from sequencing and cloning to a myriad of emerging techniques based on the genome-wide analysis of DNA and RNA. When combined with the range of structures available to single-stranded DNA and RNA, which allows them to recognize specific targets aptamers and even catalyze reactions, these processes allow for the laboratory evolution of functional oligonucleotides or SELEX: systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment for applications ranging from affinity reagents and diagnostics to therapeutics.

Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are the biopolymers , or large biomolecules , essential to all known forms of life. They are composed of nucleotides , which are the monomers made of three components: a 5-carbon sugar , a phosphate group and a nitrogenous base. If the sugar is a compound ribose , the polymer is RNA ribonucleic acid ; if the sugar is derived from ribose as deoxyribose , the polymer is DNA deoxyribonucleic acid. Nucleic acids are naturally occurring chemical compounds that serve as the primary information-carrying molecules in cells. They play an especially important role in directing protein synthesis. Nucleic acids are found in abundance in all living things, where they create, encode, and then store information of every living cell of every life-form on Earth.

Components and structure of the nucleic acids. Polymerization occurs through the condensation of the phosphate on the 5' carbon and OH on the 3' carbon linkage. Eric Lander, Prof. Robert Weinberg, Dr. Claudette Gardel. Back to Top.


Structure of DNA. •nucleotides. -monomer of nucleic acids. -made up of: •a five-​carbon sugar called deoxyribose. •a phosphate group. •a nitrogenous base.


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RNA , abbreviation of ribonucleic acid , complex compound of high molecular weight that functions in cellular protein synthesis and replaces DNA deoxyribonucleic acid as a carrier of genetic codes in some viruses. RNA consists of ribose nucleotides nitrogenous bases appended to a ribose sugar attached by phosphodiester bonds, forming strands of varying lengths. The ribose sugar of RNA is a cyclical structure consisting of five carbons and one oxygen.

We've updated our Privacy Policy to make it clearer how we use your personal data. We use cookies to provide you with a better experience, read our Cookie Policy. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and Ribonucleic acid RNA are perhaps the most important molecules in cell biology, responsible for the storage and reading of genetic information that underpins all life. They are both linear polymers, consisting of sugars, phosphates and bases, but there are some key differences which separate the two 1.

We've updated our Privacy Policy to make it clearer how we use your personal data. We use cookies to provide you with a better experience, read our Cookie Policy. Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA and Ribonucleic acid RNA are perhaps the most important molecules in cell biology, responsible for the storage and reading of genetic information that underpins all life. They are both linear polymers, consisting of sugars, phosphates and bases, but there are some key differences which separate the two 1. These distinctions enable the two molecules to work together and fulfil their essential roles.

 - Эдди! - крикнул.  - Хватит валять дурака.

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Хейл понял, что попал в яблочко. Но невозмутимость Стратмора, очевидно, подверглась тяжкому испытанию. - Кто тебе это сказал? - спросил он, и в его голосе впервые послышались металлические нотки. - Прочитал, - сказал Хейл самодовольно, стараясь извлечь как можно больше выгоды из этой ситуации.  - В одном из ваших мозговых штурмов. - Это невозможно.

Пистолет упал на пол. Оба противника оказались на полу. Беккеру удалось оторваться от убийцы, и он рванулся к двери. Халохот шарил по полу, нащупывая пистолет. Наконец он нашел его и снова выстрелил.

 Буквы. - Да, если верить ему - не английские.  - Стратмор приподнял брови, точно ждал объяснений. - Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой.

RNA structure

 Ах ты, пакостник. - Не знаю, что ты такое подумала. - Я рада, что поймала тебя, - продолжала.  - Мне нужен совет. Джабба встряхнул бутылочку с острой приправой Доктор Пеппер.

Ее мысли были прерваны внезапным звуковым сигналом входной двери Третьего узла. Стратмор чуть ли не вбежал в комнату.

3 Response
  1. Cacio A.

    This is a comparison of the differences between DNA versus RNA, including a quick summary and a detailed table of the differences.

  2. Caurenetwhoe

    ➢ Based on the observation of Erwin Chargaff that for a double stranded. DNA, the ratios between Adenine and Thymine; and Guanine and. Cytosine are constant.

  3. RГ©my M.

    PDF | T he discovery that DNA is the prime genetic molecule, carrying all the hereditary information within chromosomes, immediately focused.

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