File Name: push and pull factors of international migration .zip
- Push or Pull Factors: What Drives Central American Migrants to the U.S.?
- The push-pull factors of migration
- An introduction to ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors
There are many economic, social and physical reasons why people emigrate and they can usually be classified into push and pull factors. Economic motives loom large in all human movements, but are particularly important with regards to migration. This lack of economic opportunity tends to push people to look for their futures outside the area of their origin.
Francesco Castelli, Drivers of migration: why do people move? More than million international migrants were estimated to live in a foreign country in , leaving apart the massive number of people that have been relocated in their own country. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of international migrants from southern countries do not reach western nations but resettle in neighbouring low-income countries in the same geographical area. In particular, social media attract people out of their origin countries by raising awareness of living conditions in the affluent world, albeit often grossly exaggerated, with the diaspora link also acting as an attractor.
Push or Pull Factors: What Drives Central American Migrants to the U.S.?
Francesco Castelli, Drivers of migration: why do people move? More than million international migrants were estimated to live in a foreign country in , leaving apart the massive number of people that have been relocated in their own country.
Furthermore, a substantial proportion of international migrants from southern countries do not reach western nations but resettle in neighbouring low-income countries in the same geographical area. In particular, social media attract people out of their origin countries by raising awareness of living conditions in the affluent world, albeit often grossly exaggerated, with the diaspora link also acting as an attractor.
The stereotype of the illiterate, poor and rural migrant reaching the borders of affluent countries has to be abandoned. The poorest people simply do not have the means to escape war and poverty and remain trapped in their country or in the neighbouring one. Once in the destination country, migrants have to undergo a difficult and often conflictive integration process in the hosting community. From the health standpoint, newly arrived migrants are mostly healthy healthy migrant effect , but they may harbour latent infections that need appropriate screening policies.
Cultural barriers may sometimes hamper the relation between the migrant patient and the health care provider. The acquisition of western lifestyles is leading to an increase of non-communicable chronic diseases that require attention.
According to the International Organization for Migration IOM , as many as million people were international migrants in 1 and the UN Department of Economics and Social Affairs estimates that the figure is as high as At present, most international migrants are of working-age and live in Europe, Asia and North America Figure 1.
Apart from international migrants, an astonishing figure of million people is estimated to have migrated internally within their origin country. Migration is as old as humankind. People have always moved in search of better living conditions for themselves and for their loved ones or escaping dramatic situations in their homeland. Regardless of the theoretical framework adopted, the topic addressed by this article is difficult because sound scientific data are scarce, existing literature is mainly qualitative and often presented as grey literature.
In addition, geographical and cultural elements may influence the weight of the single determinant in different continents and in different periods. Finally, although the various drivers will be presented separately, we recognize that they are part of a unique complex scenario where they strongly interact.
Under such definition, and strictly limiting our analysis to south-to-north migrants, two major broad categories may be identified: Labour or economic migrants and family reunification and.
In this respect, it is useful to report below the synthetic definitions of asylum seekers and refugees from IOM. A person who seeks safety from persecution or serious harm in a country other than his or her own and awaits a decision on the application for refugee status under relevant international and national instruments.
In case of a negative decision, the person must leave the country and may be expelled, unless permission to stay is provided on humanitarian grounds.
The factors acting together and determining the final decision of an individual to migrate may be subdivided in macro-elements largely independent from the individual , meso-elements more closely related to the individual but not completely under the individual's control and micro-element personal characteristics and attitudes. Those that have been more extensively studied will be discussed in this article. Human development is enormously unbalanced in the various regions of the planet and the gap is increasingly wide.
The economic and political reasons underlying this sad situation are beyond the scope of this article and will not be addressed here. The Human Development Index HDI is a composite index combining the performances of the different countries on health life-expectancy , education years of schooling and economics per capita income proposed by the United Nations Development Program UNDP.
The HDI top ranking includes 15 western countries 11 European, 2 North American, 2 in Oceania and 5 Asian countries among the first 20 ranked nations.
As a consequence, most jobs in developing countries are still in the informal sector, with little salary and social protection, thus nurturing the willing to find better job conditions elsewhere. Low performances in the health, education and economic sectors are a reflex of the vulnerability of the health, education and productive systems which is caused by the lack of economic and human resources.
Poor health services, little educated and qualified work force and poverty are a fertile background promoting migration of individuals in search of better life. New communication technologies, largely available in urban settings even in developing countries, allows people to compare the western lifestyle with the local situations where the luxurious houses and cars of expatriates and local authorities… often contrast with the poor living conditions of the local populations.
The gradient of prosperity. Migration and development are strictly linked and influence each other. Paradoxically enough, in fact, migration may be driven by both a lack of development and by an increasing socio-economic development in a specific country, at least in the initial phase. The world's living population has increased in an unprecedented way during the last two centuries, from 1 billion estimated to live in the year to the more than 6 billion living at the beginning of the second millennium, to the roughly 11 billion that will probably inhabit the earth in On the contrary, the fertility rate in western industrialized countries is shrinking.
According to the World Bank, the average fertility rates in high income countries was 1. The African continent offers a striking example. From million in , the African population grew to 1 billion in and it is expected to rise to 2. This means that the increasing global wealth is not mirrored by a proportional number of jobs to satisfy the increasing expectations of the growing skilled young generation, at least in the short-medium term. It is now almost universally accepted that the climate is becoming warmer and warmer at an increasing speed, causing health inequalities across the world 15 apart from other unwanted effects.
It is also accepted that the driving causes of such climate changes started with the industrial revolution, are mainly anthropogenic in nature and are largely due to the emission of greenhouse gases in particular CO 2 , methane and nitrous oxide by industrial activities from carbon-based energy. The case of Lake Chad is extreme but enlightening. From the nearly square kilometres Lake Chad had in , its water now covers a bare one-twentieth of its original extension, with severe impact on the fertility of the surrounding land.
This shortage of water, food and agricultural resources forces people and livestock to move in search of a less hostile environment. It has been suggested that the environment may impact on migration flows by directly affecting the hazardousness of place but also indirectly changing the economic, political, social and demographic context with very complex interrelationships.
Even now, at the beginning of the third millennium, many areas of the world—in virtually all continents—host bloody conflicts and social instability where armed parties fight or where rude dictatorships are ruling and denying social rights.
Some are well-known to the public i. Fundamentalism is such countries may easily grow, as it is the case with the deadly activities of Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria, that it is estimated to have caused the internal displacement of nearly 2 million people. Land grabbing is a phenomenon that has become increasingly important since the beginning of the new millennium.
This happens to the detriment of the poor local population, which is poorly and often forcedly compensated and virtually obliged to leave the rural areas to reach the degraded urban peripheries within their own countries, where they often live a difficult life in a different setting from the one they and their families have experienced for centuries.
Psychological and physical impairment is frequent in such communities and international migration may then occur. Apart from this direct impact, the economic benefit of small-scale agricultural industry is of advantage of the local communities, while the intensive exploitation of lands as a consequence of land grabbing is mainly to the benefit of the private enterprise stock owners and the international market, 24 leading to the progressive impoverishment of the increasingly resource-poor country.
Together with environmental damages due to climate changes, the loss of small-scale land property and its turning into intensive exploitation causes a progressive land degradation, which leads to a progressive abandonment of native lands by a mass of people. This issue will only be briefly alluded to, as it is too wide and complex to be adequately addressed in such context. The history of humankind offers many examples of mass population movements caused by religion persecution or following the dream of a land where individual faith could be freely preached.
However, these movements have often been the consequence of a political will as it has been the case of the conflictive Muslim, Hindu and Sikh movement across the newly created border between India and East Pakistan now Bangladesh in Similarly, Jews flowed to Palestine after the Second World War, also attracted by the law of return, favouring migration of Jewish people to the new state of Israel. In many other instances, religion has been the pretext for ethnic persecution and expulsion, as is possibly the case for the Rohingya Muslim population from Myanmar or the mass movements caused by armed fundamentalists groups such as Daesh or Boko Haram in the Middle East and sub-Saharan West Africa, respectively.
A number of countries have a quite restrictive policy on sexual identity and LTGB people lesbians, gay, transgender and bisexual people face psychological and even physical violence, forcing them to hide their sexual identity.
The impact of such policies on international migration has recently been the subject of some investigation that is in its infancy. A final note has to be dedicated to the education level of migrants. International migrants are often regarded as illiterate and poor people escaping poverty from remote rural areas.
This stereotype is far from being true in most instances for both economic and forced migrants. Migrants in search of a better future usually have a more pronounced initiative, attitude and boldness than the average person, with some skills and financial resources needed to plan and fund a long-distance journey as it is the case for international migration.
The relationship between education and migration are twofold. From one side, the migration of educated people from low-middle income countries to OECD countries constitute a net loss of human qualified resources for the origin countries and a gain for the host country. From the other side, the financial and ideational remittances from destination countries may also have an impact on the education of non-migration children and adolescents in their origin countries.
All the above drivers of migration act, with different strength in different places, to build the general frame at the macro-level of each specific geographical, economic and political situation. However, the meso- or even micro-levels are also important in driving the final choice of the individual to migrate. The influence of the ethnic group, the family support—both economic and societal—is of the upmost importance for a specific individual to make the final choice to migrate or to stay.
Educational level and access to financial means permitting to afford the migration travel have already been discussed above, but other factors such as ethnic and social customs are also important. The aspiration and desire to migrate is a crucial key factor that interacts with other external drivers of migration to build the final decision to actually migrate.
Regardless of the mix of drivers leading to migration in any individual person, migrants usually undergo a difficult integration process in the hosting community. Conversely, the receiving country could also be obliged to adapt its social and health systems to face the needs of the hosted population. In many instances, this process is not without conflict for the cultural and economic adaptations that it implies.
Crowded and inadequate living conditions in hosting camps may also lead to infectious diseases outbreaks, as recently reported in France. Once resettled in the host country, foreign-borne individuals may face infectious exposure when travelling back—often accompanied by children born in the host country—to their countries of origin.
They are then referred as VFRs Visiting Friends and Relatives , and represent a significant proportion of imported diseases in western countries, as in is the case for imported malaria. Finally, the cultural interaction between the migrant patient and the care provider is often not without conflicts. The emphasis on the possible exotic nature of otherwise ubiquitous illnesses or, on the contrary, the underestimation of culturally bound complaints cultural barriers are often aggravated by linguistic barriers leading to potential medical errors.
The knowledge of culturally sensitive medical issues, such as genital mutilations, is generally poor in western physicians, requiring specific training and research.
In conclusion, the migration flow is now a structural phenomenon that is likely to continue in the next decades. While many migrants from low-income countries aim to reach more affluent areas of the world, it is to be appreciated that a similar, or even bigger, mass of people migrates to neighbouring low-income countries in the same geographical area.
Migration is always the result of a complex combination of macro-, meso- and micro- factors, the former acting at the society level and the latter acting at the family or even individual level. The prevalence of a factor over the other is unpredictable. These are the main drivers of forced migration, both international or internal.
The role of communication technologies and social media to attract people out of their origin countries is indisputable today. Awareness of living conditions in the affluent world—albeit often grossly exaggerated—contributes to nurture the myth of western countries as Eldorado. The ease of communication with the diaspora and family members who migrated previously reinforces the desire of escaping from poverty to a challenging new life abroad. In any case, the stereotype of the illiterate poor migrant coming from the most remote rural areas and reaching the borders of affluent countries does not stand.
Some degree of entrepreneurship, educational level, social and financial support is usually requested for international south—north economic migration and personal characteristics and choices also play a role. This phenomenon has a positive aspect, as the possibility of success of migrants increases as do remittances, but also a negative one, as the most active part of the origin country may be drained preventing local development.
Host countries, which may have also an economic benefit from migration in the medium long-term, have to be prepared to receive migrants for the benefit of the migrants themselves and their native population. World Migration Report, Lee E.
A theory of migration. Demography ; 3 : 47 —
The push-pull factors of migration
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Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI) with a project to study the push and pull factors determining international migration flows.
An introduction to ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors
Learn more about us. This briefing reviews the available evidence on the main determinants of migration to the UK since the early s. It discusses the role of migration policies in shaping migration flows. Although the focus of this briefing is the experience of the UK, the analysis will also use evidence on the determinants of migration to other OECD countries. People migrate from their country of origin for several reasons, but economic conditions at home are thought to be the most important single reason.
Он бросил быстрый взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему сидела на стуле, обхватив голову руками и целиком уйдя в. Фонтейн не мог понять, в чем дело, но, какими бы ни были причины ее состояния, выяснять это сейчас не было времени. - Нужно решать, сэр! - требовал Джабба.
А что, подумала Сьюзан, если броситься мимо него и побежать к двери. Но осуществить это намерение ей не пришлось. Внезапно кто-то начал колотить кулаком по стеклянной стене. Оба они - Хейл и Сьюзан - даже подпрыгнули от неожиданности. Это был Чатрукьян.
Ни души. Продала кольцо и улетела.
- Номер четыре. Они со Сьюзан слушали этот концерт в прошлом году в университете в исполнении оркестра Академии Святого Мартина. Ему вдруг страшно захотелось увидеть ее - сейчас. Прохладный ветерок кондиционера напомнил ему о жаре на улице. Он представил себе, как бредет, обливаясь потом, по душным, пропитанным запахом наркотиков улицам Трианы, пытаясь разыскать девчонку-панка в майке с британским флагом на груди, и снова подумал о Сьюзан.
- Я уже раньше объяснял вам, что занят диагностикой особого рода. Цепная мутация, которую вы обнаружили в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, является частью этой диагностики. Она там, потому что я ее туда запустил.
PRIME DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ELEMENTS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI ГЛАВНАЯ РАЗНИЦА МЕЖДУ ЭЛЕМЕНТАМИ, ОТВЕТСТВЕННЫМИ ЗА ХИРОСИМУ И НАГАСАКИ - Это даже не вопрос! - крикнул Бринкерхофф. - Какой же может быть ответ. - Нам необходимо число, - напомнил Джабба.
Неужели Хейл никогда не слышал о принципе Бергофского. - Вот что нам надо сделать. - Стратмор начал спокойно излагать свой план.