File Name: biogas technology in kenya and slurry pit.zip
CFA uses eight categories Table 1 , called capacity factors, to evaluate a community's ability to manage water and sanitation technologies. The model then rates technologies based on what is needed for their management in each capacity factor.
Long-term economic and environmental concerns have resulted in a great amount of research on renewable sources of biomass and bioenergy to replace fossil fuels in the past decades. Decentralized biogas technology is one of the most potential technologies of biomass and bioenergy by using agricultural waste materials e. By-products from biogas production, called digestate, are nutrient rich, which could potentially be reused as green fertilizers in agriculture, thereby providing a sustainable substitute for synthetic fertilizers for farm ecosystem. Thus, the biogas production of anaerobic digestion is win—win option for livestock and crop producers to address issues of waste management and energy supply, and to avoid contamination of surface and ground waters and emissions of odors and greenhouse gases. In this paper, we review biogas production technology and then evaluate environmental effects of digestate used as fertilizer.
Op-ed: Why African biogas entrepreneurs don’t get support
Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen anaerobically , primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste , manure , municipal waste , plant material , sewage , green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion with methanogen or anaerobic organisms , which digest material inside a closed system, or fermentation of biodegradable materials. Biogas is primarily methane CH 4 and carbon dioxide CO 2 and may have small amounts of hydrogen sulfide H 2 S , moisture and siloxanes.
Biogas Technology, Transfer and Diffusion
Long-term temperature measurement: Biogas digesters fermenting slurry. This paper reports the results of the temperature profile of the unheated and unstirred continuous fermenting bio-slurry in a fixed-dome Deenbandhu model. The digester is a brick-built system of bulk size 6 m 3. The digester was monitored for eight months, measuring internal bio-slurry temperature. The sensor was connected to the data logger and programmed to record temperature readings every second for the entire study period. The study results reported give a clear indication about the reaction of bio-slurry temperature in the digester at a local level, particularly for the eight months' period, which covered all seasons. The calculated values of the daily average temperature reveal that the digester was operating within the range of psychro-philic
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Metrics details. Solid biomass-based energy is expected to retain its position as a sole fuel source for households in the rural part of Ethiopia unless alternative energy sources are introduced. Synthesizing small-scale renewable alternative energy sources, such as biogas energy, into the energy mix has become an important strategy to overcome the energy hunger of its rural residents. As part of the government policy, small-scale biogas digesters have been installed in selected districts and regions of the country since There is, however, limited evidence on whether or not the intended objectives of the domestic biogas initiative have been actualized by the participants of the project. This paper, therefore, intends to investigate the economic benefits of domestic biogas plants along with the challenges facing it and future prospects of the biogas initiative in selected districts of northern Ethiopia. Qualitative data were gathered using focus group discussion and key informant interviews.
Biogas is the mixture of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen anaerobically , primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide. Biogas can be produced from raw materials such as agricultural waste , manure , municipal waste , plant material , sewage , green waste or food waste. Biogas is a renewable energy source.
However, the challenges facing the African biogas sector and biogas entrepreneurs is a result of lack of government intervention in setting up market structures to enable growth of this job-enabling sector writes Albert Mbaka. These fuels also significantly contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, deforestation and soil erosion, loss of soil fertility, and leads to severe indoor air pollution with premature death of about four million people worldwide annually. Most governments in Africa are yet to provide the requisite incentives that would stimulate demand for biogas technologies. Perhaps there are lessons to borrow from China, which have been successful due to the government providing policy support, favourable social-economic conditions and availability of technology. China had about 43 million household biogas users and 10, large scale projects by In Africa, biogas entrepreneurs require working capital including subsidies to roll out their biogas projects.
Biogas is a byproduct of the decomposition of organic matter by anaerobic bacteria. Biogas is a clean and renewable energy that may be substituted to natural gas to cook, to produce vapor, hot water or to generate electricity. At room pressure and temperature biogas is in gaseous form, not liquid like LPG propane. Bottling biogas is a very expensive process. Organic waste is put into a sealed tank called a digester or bioreactor where it is heated and agitated.
Uncontrolled greenhouse gas emission from sewage waste will be reduced by using simple technology like utilizing this waste in making biogas. Population increase of students and Inmates in Kenyan schools and prisons has led to an increase in quantity of the human waste that is produced within these institutions. Waste is generated from the student dormitory and other existing facilities in the schools. The human waste has been of concern to every society and the concerned local authorities have set up waste collection and disposal systems. There are numerous reasons why we need to be concerned with human waste at Kenyan schools. It is costly to dispose, and the generation of large amounts of this waste affects the environment, especially water table and other water bodies within the vicinity of drainage system. Human waste contaminate water and this pose health hazards to humans.
CFA uses eight categories Table 1 , called capacity factors, to evaluate a community's ability to manage water and sanitation technologies. The model then rates technologies based on what is needed for their management in each capacity factor. For example, if the technical — defined as supply chain, spare parts, supplies, and services — capacity factor ranks low, then a local supply chain must be established to ensure that the village can replace a spare part easily. The students collaborated with community decision makers to determine low, medium, and high capacity in each CFA category. Furthermore, LOTI , or Least of These International—which was founded by Henriques—an implementing developing agency, rated the biogas technology as needing high, medium, or low management capability in each category.
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Киллер щелкнул миниатюрным тумблером, и очки превратились в дисплей. Опустив руки, он незаметными быстрыми движениями соединял кончики пальцев. Перед его глазами появилось сообщение, которое он должен был отправить.