File Name: health care usa understanding its organization and delivery chapter 13.zip
- Chapter 13 states of matter answer key
- Understanding Health Policy: A Clinical Approach, 8e
- Glencoe Health Student Activity Workbook Answer Key Chapter 8
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Chapter 13 states of matter answer key
As this definition suggests, health is a multidimensional concept. Although the three dimensions of health just listed often affect each other, it is possible for someone to be in good physical health and poor mental health, or vice versa. Medicine refers to the social institution that seeks to prevent, diagnose, and treat illness and to promote health in its various dimensions. This social institution in the United States is vast, to put it mildly, and involves more than 11 million people physicians, nurses, dentists, therapists, medical records technicians, and many other occupations.
Finally, health care refers to the provision of medical services to prevent, diagnose, and treat health problems. With these definitions in mind, we now turn to sociological explanations of health and health care. As usual, the major sociological perspectives that we have discussed throughout this book offer different types of explanations, but together they provide us with a more comprehensive understanding than any one approach can do by itself.
Table Poor medical care is likewise dysfunctional for society, as people who are ill face greater difficulty in becoming healthy and people who are healthy are more likely to become ill. For a person to be considered legitimately sick, said Parsons, several expectations must be met.
He referred to these expectations as the sick role. First, sick people should not be perceived as having caused their own health problem. If we eat high-fat food, become obese, and have a heart attack, we evoke less sympathy than if we had practiced good nutrition and maintained a proper weight. If someone is driving drunk and smashes into a tree, there is much less sympathy than if the driver had been sober and skidded off the road in icy weather.
Second, sick people must want to get well. If they do not want to get well or, worse yet, are perceived as faking their illness or malingering after becoming healthier, they are no longer considered legitimately ill by the people who know them or, more generally, by society itself.
If a sick person fails to do so, she or he again loses the right to perform the sick role. Talcott Parsons wrote that for a person to be perceived as legitimately ill, several expectations, called the sick role, must be met. These expectations include the perception that the person did not cause her or his own health problem.
If all these expectations are met, said Parsons, sick people are treated as sick by their family, their friends, and other people they know, and they become exempt from their normal obligations to all these people. Sometimes they are even told to stay in bed when they want to remain active.
Physicians also have a role to perform, said Parsons. Parsons thus viewed the physician-patient relationship as hierarchical: the physician gives the orders or, more accurately, provides advice and instructions , and the patient follows them. First, his idea of the sick role applies more to acute short-term illness than to chronic long-term illness. Although much of his discussion implies a person temporarily enters a sick role and leaves it soon after following adequate medical care, people with chronic illnesses can be locked into a sick role for a very long time or even permanently.
Third, Parsons wrote approvingly of the hierarchy implicit in the physician-patient relationship. Many experts say today that patients need to reduce this hierarchy by asking more questions of their physicians and by taking a more active role in maintaining their health. To the extent that physicians do not always provide the best medical care, the hierarchy that Parsons favored is at least partly to blame. The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and of health-care delivery Weitz, As noted earlier, the quality of health and health care differs greatly around the world and within the United States.
People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill, and once they do become ill, inadequate health care makes it more difficult for them to become well. As we will see, the evidence of disparities in health and health care is vast and dramatic. The conflict approach also critiques efforts by physicians over the decades to control the practice of medicine and to define various social problems as medical ones.
On the good side, they have believed they are the most qualified professionals to diagnose problems and to treat people who have these problems. On the negative side, they have also recognized that their financial status will improve if they succeed in characterizing social problems as medical problems and in monopolizing the treatment of these problems. Alternative medicine is becoming increasingly popular, but so has criticism of it by the medical establishment. Physicians may honestly feel that medical alternatives are inadequate, ineffective, or even dangerous, but they also recognize that the use of these alternatives is financially harmful to their own practices.
Many of the women and girls who have eating disorders receive help from a physician, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, or another health-care professional.
Obstetrical care provides another example. In most of human history, midwives or their equivalent were the people who helped pregnant women deliver their babies. In the nineteenth century, physicians claimed they were better trained than midwives and won legislation giving them authority to deliver babies. According to conflict theory, physicians have often sought to define various social problems as medical problems.
A generation or more ago, they would have been considered merely as overly active. Scientific medicine has greatly improved the health of people around the world. The symbolic interactionist approach emphasizes that health and illness are social constructions. Opium use was considered neither a major health nor legal problem. In a more current example, an attempt to redefine obesity is now under way in the United States.
The symbolic interactionist approach has also provided important studies of the interaction between patients and health-care professionals. Under these circumstances, the physician must act in a purely professional manner. Critics fault the symbolic interactionist approach for implying that no illnesses have objective reality. Many serious health conditions do exist and put people at risk for their health regardless of what they or their society thinks. Critics also say the approach neglects the effects of social inequality for health and illness.
Despite these possible faults, the symbolic interactionist approach reminds us that health and illness do have a subjective as well as an objective reality.
Buckser, A. Institutions, agency, and illness in the making of Tourette syndrome. Human Organization, 68 3 , — Conrad, P. The medicalization of society: On the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders.
Diamond, A. Acceptance of fat as the norm is a cause for concern. Nursing Standard, 25 38 , 28— Lorber, J. Gender and the social construction of illness 2nd ed. Musto, D. Drugs in America: A documentary history. Rao, A. The way of boys: Promoting the social and emotional development of young boys.
Weitz, R. The sociology of health, illness, and health care: A critical approach 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Wadsworth. Whitehead, K. Journal of Gender Studies, 17 , — Skip to content Learning Objective List the assumptions of the functionalist, conflict, and symbolic interactionist perspectives on health and medicine. The physician-patient relationship is hierarchical: The physician provides instructions, and the patient needs to follow them. Conflict theory Social inequality characterizes the quality of health and the quality of health care.
People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill and to receive inadequate health care. Partly to increase their incomes, physicians have tried to control the practice of medicine and to define social problems as medical problems.
Symbolic interactionism Health and illness are social constructions : Physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society. The Conflict Approach The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and of health-care delivery Weitz, The Symbolic Interactionist Approach The symbolic interactionist approach emphasizes that health and illness are social constructions.
The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and in the quality of health care. The interactionist approach emphasizes that health and illness are social constructions; physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society and its members.
For Your Review Which approach—functionalist, conflict, or symbolic interactionist—do you most favor regarding how you understand health and health care? Explain your answer. Think of the last time you visited a physician or another health-care professional. In what ways did this person come across as an authority figure possessing medical knowledge? Previous: Chapter Health and Health Care. Next: Good health and effective medical care are essential for the smooth functioning of society.
Social inequality characterizes the quality of health and the quality of health care. Health and illness are social constructions : Physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society.
Understanding Health Policy: A Clinical Approach, 8e
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Glencoe Health Student Activity Workbook Answer Key Chapter 8
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NCBI Bookshelf. Hughes RG, editor. Cushman ; Kristine Alster. Cushman ; 3 Kristine Alster. Home health care is a system of care provided by skilled practitioners to patients in their homes under the direction of a physician. Home health care services include nursing care; physical, occupational, and speech-language therapy; and medical social services.
Проклятие. Телефон звонил не переставая. Джабба решил не обращать на него внимания. - Мидж, - беззвучно выдавил он, - черт тебя дери. В шифровалке все в порядке! - Телефон не унимался.
Панк да и. Беккер принадлежал к миру людей, носивших университетские свитера и консервативные стрижки, - он просто не мог представить себе образ, который нарисовала Росио. - Попробуйте припомнить что-нибудь. Росио задумалась. - Нет, больше. В этот момент кровать громко заскрипела: клиент Росио попытался переменить позу.
Это был Стратмор. Лицо его снизу подсвечивалось маленьким предметом, который он извлек из кармана. Сьюзан обмякла, испытав огромное облегчение, и почувствовала, что вновь нормально дышит: до этого она от ужаса задержала дыхание. Предмет в руке Стратмора излучал зеленоватый свет.
То, что началось как в высшей степени патриотическая миссия, самым неожиданным образом вышло из-под контроля. Коммандер был вынужден принимать невероятные решения, совершать чудовищные поступки, на которые, как ему казалось раньше, не был способен. Это единственное решение.
Каждый шаг Стратмора был рассчитан самым тщательным образом. Строя свои планы, Стратмор целиком полагался на собственный компьютер. Как и многие другие сотрудники АНБ, он использовал разработанную агентством программу Мозговой штурм - безопасный способ разыгрывать сценарий типа Что, если?. на защищенном от проникновения компьютере.