File Name: architecture and town planning lecture notes .zip
- Land-use planning
- Architecture-Town planning
- Urban Planning and Smart Cities: Interrelations and Reciprocities
Subject: Architectural Planning and Design of Buildings 1. Tech and other exam with Answers Solution. Traffic calming: Design and implementation. Urban planning is a technological and political process focused on the advancement and design of land use and the constructed environment.
The various stages of planning process are as follows Identification and definition of problems 2. Defining the objectives 3. Studies and survey 4. Analysis of data and preparation of study maps 5.
Fore-casting 6. Design 7. Fixation of priorities 8. Implementation 9. Review, evaluation and feedback Identification and definition of problems :Various problems with reference to the results obtained by studies and surveys and with reference to the objectives are identified Defining the objectives :Here the objectives of the planning are identified.
Studies and survey :The following studies and surveys are taken up for plan preparation. Analysis of data and preparation of study maps :The data obtained is analysed -observations and conclusions have to be derived out of the studies and surveys. The short-term objectives and long-term objectives are identified -various study maps, charts and graphs are prepared 5. Fore-casting : Period of demographic projection is prescribed. Forecasting of about migration, employment, industrialization and other rapid urbanization possibilities are to be made.
Design :This is an important aspect in the planning process. Need to relate existing pattern, interactions and trends is to be examined.
Preparation of development plans, formulation of zones, alteration to the existing zoning regulations, widening of roads etc. Alternatives are also made for effective and quick implementation of plan. The plan should also be able to cope with sudden and unexpected events.
Possibility of changing from one strategy to another should be designed at the same time keeping in view its practicability and the total expenditure involved. Fixation of priorities :Since all the proposals cannot be taken up at one time due to financial and administrative difficulties, priorities should be fixed for taking up the implementation depending upon the importance and urgency.
Implementation :Implementation is the most important stage where all the earlier efforts to prepare plan is to be put into practice to achieve the objectives. The authority, which takes up the implementation, is to fulfill all the required legal obligations in time -zoning regulations, land acquisition for road widening and for other purposes is taken-up.
Review, evaluation and feedback :The work of implementation has to be monitored by taking -up periodical inspections and obtaining review reports. Feedback is essential periodically. The plan should be flexible for modifications depending upon the necessities. Some of them ask for general things, some asks for some order of preferences or some give stress to the time interval between two incidents. Thus questionnaires should be framed in such a way so that all the answers received are properly checked.
Pilot surveys should also be conducted to check forgery and bias. Such a plan aims to influence certain key vocational decisions while recognizing that there are many other things that can't and perhaps should not be decided at the outset.
He had an idea which he set forth in little book entitled 'To-morrow', published in which later republished under the title of 'Garden City of To-morrow. He explained his idea of 'Garden City' by an impressive diagram of The Three Magnets namely the town magnet, country magnet with their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country life.
Naturally people preferred the third one namely Garden City. It made a deep impression in the field of town planning. For instance, Letch worth is located thirty-five miles from London with a total of land 3, acres. A total of 1, acres of land has been reserved as a major component of greenbelt for the uses of residences.
It was designed for a maximum of 35, populations. In thirty years, the town had successfully developed into a garden city with the total of population of 15,, with more than shops and industries. The second garden city that successfully developed was Welwyn. The site is located 24 miles form London. The site was 2, acres and it was designed for a population of 40, In fifteen years it had a population of 10, with fifty industries.
Meanwhile, Howard's concept for the garden city was a means of controlling the growth of cities through the building series of new towns physically separated from each other and from the parent city. The garden cities were to be self-contained for the needs of the people.
The garden city concept has influenced many planners or the first group of new towns built in Britain after the Second World War. For instance, Cumbernauld is the British new town to be built. Such idea of sustainable development is applied in Singapore beginning at the year of The initial step is to plant as much as greenery as possible to improve the quality of the environment. The concept of Garden City becomes more defined and clearer only in the 's. In Singapore, Garden City is defined as a green, shady city filled with fruits and flowers, a city worthy of industrious people whose quest for progress is matched by their appreciation for the beauty of nature.
Trees, flowers and birds within typical garden can soften the harshness of tarmac and concrete. Geddes' name and spirit are imperishably associated with Ramsay Garden and the Outlook Tower, both in Castle hill. He emphasized that people do not merely needed shelter, but also food and work, the recreation and social life. This makes the house an inseparable part of the neighbourhood, the city and the surrounding open country and the region. The town planning primarily meant establishing organic relationship among 'Folk place and work', which corresponds to triad Geddesian triad of organism, function and environment.
In this book he coined the term "Conurbation" to describe the waves of population inflow to large cities, followed by overcrowding and slum formation, and then the wave of backflow -the whole process resulting in amorphous sprawl, waste, and unnecessary obsolescence. It represents the essence of Geddes's thought -his holism, visual thinking, and commitment to understanding the city in the region. He can also grasp what a natural region actually is and how a great city is linked to such a region.
He gave his expert advice for the improvement of about eighteen major towns in India. These are the physical and social economic surveys. Before coming to India, he had successfully overcome the horrors of Edinborough slums.
Hence to create a safely healthy physical environment in which children will have no traffic streets to cross on their way to school, schools which are within walking distance from home; an environment in which women may have an easy walk to a shopping centre where they may get the daily households goods, employed people may find convenient transportation to and from work.
It is an environment in which a well equipped playground is located near the house where children may play in safety with their friends for healthy development of their mind and spirit.
With consideration to all the above physical factor's the Neighborhood concept was evolved. PERRY was the first one to specify the physical form of the neighbourhood unit Perry described the neighbourhood unit as that populated area which would require and support an elementary school with an enrollment of between to pupils. This would mean a population of between 5, and 6, people. The neighbourhood unit is bounded by arterial roads or other boundaries, with open spaces, school, community centre and local shops, the latter being on the circumference.
Most importantly there was no through traffic within the Neighbourhood unit. PERRY wrote that these principles, if complied with, "will result in a neighbourhood community in which the fundamental needs of family life will be met more completely. The Settlement House movement which began in London about was the first conscious recognition of the Neighbourhood as a basic unit in the urban structure or planning. Population criteria may vary from place to place but it depends mainly upon the size of the neighborhood unit.
The growth unit would range in size from to 3, dwelling units population of between 1, and 10, Instead these streets should provide the boundaries of the neighbourhood. Interior street pattern should be designed and constructed through use of cul-de-sacs, curved layout and light duty surfacing, so as to encourage a quiet, safe, low volume traffic movement and preservation of the residential atmosphere.
The minor streets or development roads, being the means of connecting the dwelling unit in a housing group, cannot be properly defined until the actual building group is designed. They are the integral parts of the design of the dwelling and should not be shown on the neighbourhood plan.
The facilities primarily include primary school, shopping centre, shopping adjacent to main road, spaces for outdoor recreation; community centre, sports centre etc.
When Perry formulated his theory the population was estimated about 5, persons for enrollment of between to pupils. Current elementary school size standard probably would higher the figure to to persons. In general, it may range from to people.
For Chicago, in the range was from to 12, In the Greater London plan, by Abercrombie and Forshaw, the unit size was to 10, people. The American Institute of Architects adopted the unit range between to people. Despite the variation the principle of the neighbourhood unit run's through all considerations for social, physical and political organizations of the city. It represents a unit of the population with basic common needs for educational, recreational and other services.
It is the standard for their facilities from which the size and design of the neighbourhood emerge.
This blog is purely an attempt to provide the students of civil engineering, urban engineering, architecture, planning and urban design the understanding of town planning, city planning and urban design. Dear Students Thank you very much for learning the course of town planning. I wish you all the success and hapiness in life. I have always tried not just to teach you people but learn from you. I taught this subject since January and each year a new learning come across through my students. I believe town planning is all about understanding the realities about your city, its people and the behaviour of society at large.
Architecture & Town planning, A&TP Study Materials, Engineering Class handwritten notes, exam notes, previous year questions, PDF free download.
Urban Planning and Smart Cities: Interrelations and Reciprocities
Land-use planning is the process of regulating the use of land by a central authority. Usually, this is done in an effort to promote more desirable social and environmental outcomes as well as a more efficient use of resources. More specifically, the goals of modern land-use planning often include environmental conservation , restraint of urban sprawl , minimization of transport costs, prevention of land use conflicts , and a reduction in exposure to pollutants.
All time popular Study Materials
All images in the lectures are courtesy of the course faculty except as noted, and all are used with permission. Image attribution list PDF. Don't show me this again. This is one of over 2, courses on OCW. Explore materials for this course in the pages linked along the left. No enrollment or registration.
Да, - в сердцах бросил Джабба. - Шифр-убийца. Но единственный человек, которому известен ключ, мертв. - А метод грубой силы? - предложил Бринкерхофф. - Можно ли с его помощью найти ключ.
Пора, ребята! - Джабба повернулся к директору. - Мне необходимо решение. Или мы начинаем отключение, или же мы никогда этого не сделаем. Как только эти два агрессора увидят, что Бастион пал, они издадут боевой клич. Фонтейн ничего не ответил, погруженный в глубокое раздумье. Слова Сьюзан Флетчер о том, что ключ находится в Испании, показались ему обнадеживающими. Он бросил быстрый взгляд на Сьюзан, которая по-прежнему сидела на стуле, обхватив голову руками и целиком уйдя в .
Он лежал, устремив глаза к небу и продолжая прижимать руку к груди. Внезапно камера отъехала в сторону, под деревья.