File Name: motivation and learning in psychology .zip
- The Incentive Theory of Motivation
- The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Volume 46
- Motivations, Theories and Research for Educational Psychology
Interest is a powerful motivational process that energizes learning, guides academic and career trajectories, and is essential to academic success. Interest is both a psychological state of attention and affect toward a particular object or topic, and an enduring predisposition to reengage over time.
Motivation is a reason for actions , willingness , and goals. Motivation is derived from the word motive, or a need that requires satisfaction. These needs , wants or desires may be acquired through influence of culture, society, lifestyle, or may be generally innate. An individual's motivation may be inspired by outside forces extrinsic motivation  or by themselves intrinsic motivation. Mastering motivation to allow sustained and deliberate practice is central to high levels of achievement, e.
The Incentive Theory of Motivation
Although it is commonly believed that the observer will copy the model, American psychologist Albert Bandura stressed that individuals may simply learn from the behavior rather than imitate it.
He also emphasized that four conditions were necessary in any form of observing and modeling behavior: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. If an organism is going to learn anything from a model, he or she must be paying attention to it and the behavior it exhibits. For instance, if the observer is sleepy, ill, or distracted, he or she will be less likely to learn the modeled behavior and imitate it at a later date. Bandura and others have shown that humans pay more attention to models that are attractive, similar to them, or prestigious and are rewarded for their behaviors.
This explains the appeal that athletes have on the behavior of young children and that successful adults have on college students. Unfortunately, this aspect of modeling can also be used in detrimental ways. For example, if young children witness gang members gaining status or money, they may imitate those behaviors in an effort to gain similar rewards. The second requirement of observational learning is being able to remember the behavior that was witnessed.
If the human or animal does not remember the behavior, there is a less than probable chance that they will imitate it. This requisite of behavior concerns the physical and mental ability of the individual to copy the behavior he or she observed. For instance, a young child may observe a college basketball player dunk a ball.
Later, when the child has a basketball, he or she may attempt to dunk a ball just like the college player. However, the young child is not nearly as physically developed as the older college player and, no matter how many times he or she tries, will not be able to reach the basket to dunk the ball. An older child or an adult might be able to dunk the ball but likely only after quite a bit of practice. Similarly, a young colt observes another horse in the herd jump over the creek while running in the pasture.
He simply was not big enough or did not have long enough legs to clear the water. Perhaps the most important aspect of observational learning involves motivation. If the human or animal does not have a reason for imitating the behavior, then no amount of attention, retention, or reproduction will overcome the lack of motivation. Bandura identified several motivating factors for imitation. These include knowing that the model was previously reinforced for the behavior, being offered an incentive to perform, or observing the model receiving reinforcement for the behavior.
These factors can also be negative motivations. For instance, if the observer knew that the model was punished for the behavior, was threatened for exhibiting the behavior, or observed the model being punished for the behavior, then the probability of mimicking the behavior is less.
Modeling has been used successfully in many therapeutic conditions. Many therapists have used forms of modeling to assist their patients to overcome phobias. For example, adults with claustrophobia may observe a model in a video as they move closer and closer to an enclosed area before entering it. Once the model reaches the enclosed area, for instance a closet, he or she will open the door, enter it, and then close the door.
The observer will be taught relaxation techniques and be told to practice them anytime he or she becomes anxious while watching the film. The end result is to continue observing the model until the person can enter the closet himself or herself. Bandura filmed his students physically attacking the Bobo doll, an inflatable doll with a rounded bottom that pops back up when knocked down. A student was placed in the room with the Bobo doll.
Bandura then showed this film to young children. Their behavior was taped when in the room with the doll. The children imitated the behaviors of the student and at times even became more aggressive toward the doll than what they had observed. Another group of young children observed a student being nice to the doll. Ironically, this group of children did not imitate the positive interaction of the model.
Bandura conducted a large number of varied scenarios of this study and found similar events even when the doll was a live clown. These findings have prompted many parents to monitor the television shows their children watch and the friends or peers with which they associate. Children are more likely to imitate the behaviors versus the instructions of their parents.
One of the most famous instances of observational learning in animals involves the blue tit , a small European bird. During the s and through the s, many people reported that the cream from the top of the milk being delivered to their homes was being stolen.
The cream-stealing incidents spread all over Great Britain. After much speculation about the missing cream, it was discovered that the blue tit was the culprit. Specifically, one bird had learned to peck through the foil top of the milk container and suck the cream out of the bottle.
It did not take long before other blue tit birds imitated the behavior and spread it through the country. Observational learning Article Additional Info. Article Contents.
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This type of learning…. An artificial, laboratory example of observational learning would be to allow an observer rat to watch a demonstrator rat pressing a lever for food. If the observer has never before pressed a lever and, given the opportunity, now does so much more rapidly than another rat denied the opportunity to…. History at your fingertips.
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The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Volume 46
What forces are behind your actions? Do you get up and head to the gym each day because you know it's good for you, or is it because of some type of external reward? Sometimes people are motivated to act because of internal desires and wishes, but at other times, behaviors are driven by a desire for external rewards. According to one theory of human motivation, actions are often inspired by a desire to gain outside reinforcement. Incentive theory began to emerge during the s and s, building on the earlier drive theories established by psychologists such as Clark Hull. Rather than focusing on more intrinsic forces behind motivation , the incentive theory proposes that people are pulled toward behaviors that lead to rewards and pushed away from actions that might lead to negative consequences.
Keywords: Motivation; teachers; learners; learning. 1. INTRODUCTION. Motivation is a complex part of human. psychology and behavior that.
Motivations, Theories and Research for Educational Psychology
The Psychology of Learning and Motivation publishes empirical and theoretical contributions in cognitive and experimental psychology, ranging from classical and instrumental conditioning to complex learning and problem solving. Volume 46 contains chapters on category learning, prototypes, prospective memory, event memory, memory models, and musical prosody. Praise for the Series "A remarkable number of landmark papers
Motivation, defined as the energizing of behavior in pursuit of a goal, is a fundamental element of our interaction with the world and with each other. All animals share motivation to obtain their basic needs, including food, water, sex and social interaction. Meeting these needs is a requirement for survival, but in all cases the goals must be met in appropriate quantities and at appropriate times. Therefore motivational drive must be modulated as a function of both internal states as well as external environmental conditions. The regulation of motivated behaviors is achieved by the coordinated action of molecules peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters etc , acting within specific circuits that integrate multiple signals in order for complex decisions to be made.
Although it is commonly believed that the observer will copy the model, American psychologist Albert Bandura stressed that individuals may simply learn from the behavior rather than imitate it. He also emphasized that four conditions were necessary in any form of observing and modeling behavior: attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation. If an organism is going to learn anything from a model, he or she must be paying attention to it and the behavior it exhibits.
What motivations underlie our behaviors? Some motives are biological, like our need for food or water. However, the motives that we will be more interested in are more psychological.