Carrot And Stick Theory Of Motivation Pdf

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There are many different methods of motivating employees to do well at work. One common method is the carrot and stick approach. Creating a carrot and stick policy is typically fast and easy to implement, and it can be customized for your employee needs and company culture.

Carrot and Stick Motivation: Definition and Examples in the Workplace

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You can browse or download additional books there. To download a. A champion needs a motivation above and beyond winning. Ability is what you're capable of doing.

Motivation determines what you do. Attitude determines how well you do it. Brenden decided to go to college with one goal in mind: to get a job where he could make lots of money.

His hope was that the job would allow him to live in a large house, drive a nice car, and take two nice vacations per year.

Once he graduated, he accepted a sales job that afforded him these things. About two years into his job, he realized that while he was making a lot of money, he didn't really like his job. It required a lot of travel and working with unhappy clients. Brenden then decided to create a list of the most important things to him in a job. The first on the list was the fact he would feel good about his contributions to society.

The second on the list was his ability to pay his bills with a little money left over to save. The third most important thing on the list was that he would be home during the week so he could spend more time with his family. The more Brenden looked at his "wish" list, he realized what he wanted wasn't lots of money, as he had thought.

Other things, as he grew in his career, were far more important to him. Brenden's situation is common. Often, people think they are motivated by money, but when they step back, they realize that money is just one part of a person's overall satisfaction at work.

For years, managers have tried to motivate people based on money, but research has shown this can only be effective to an extent. Other things, such as flexible schedules or more vacation time, can motivate people more than a pay raise. This is the topic of our chapter, human motivation and developing an understanding of what motivates you. Knowing what motivates you as you select a career path can help you be a successful, happy employee later on.

There are a number of theories that attempt to describe what makes a satisfied employee versus an unsatisfied employee. It may be surprising, but much of what makes us satisfied or unsatisfied at work has little to do with money.

We will discuss some of these theories next. Have you ever felt unhappy at a job? If you have, consider how you went through the process of being unhappy—because for most of us, we start out happy but then gradually become unhappy. One of the basic theories is the progression of job withdrawal theory, developed by Dan Farrell and James Petersen. Dan Farrell and James C. It says that people develop a set of behaviors in order to avoid their work situation.

These behaviors include behavior change, physical withdrawal, and psychological withdrawal. Within the behavior change area, an employee will first try to change the situation that is causing the dissatisfaction. For example, if the employee is unhappy with the management style, he or she might consider asking for a department move. In the physical withdrawal phase, the employee does one of the following:.

If an employee is unable to leave the job situation, he or she will experience psychological withdrawal.

They will become disengaged and may show less job involvement and commitment to the organization, which can create large costs to the organization, such as dissatisfied customers, not to mention the cost to employee and his or her unhappiness in the job. Often, our process of job withdrawal has to do with our lack of motivation, which we will discuss in the next section. Between and , a series of experiments were conducted by Elton Mayo in the Western Electric Hawthorne Works company in Illinois.

Mayo developed these experiments to see how the physical and environmental factors of the workplace, such as lighting and break times, would affect employee motivation. This was some of the first research performed that looked at human motivation at work. His results were surprising, as he found that no matter which experiments were performed, worker output improved. His conclusion and explanation for this was the simple fact the workers were happy to receive attention from researchers who expressed interest in them.

As a result, these experiments, scheduled to last one year, extended to five years to increase the knowledge base about human motivation.

The implication of this research applies to us as employees, even today. It tells us that our supervisors and managers should try to do things that make us feel valued. If not, we need to find ways to feel we add value to the organization. In , Abraham Maslow developed what was known as the theory of human motivation. Abraham Maslow, Toward a Psychology of Being , 3rd ed. New York: Wiley, His theory was developed in an attempt to explain human motivation.

According to Maslow, there is a hierarchy of five needs, and as one level of need is satisfied, it will no longer be a motivator. In other words, people start at the bottom of the hierarchy and work their way up. Physiological needs are our most basic needs, including food, water, and shelter.

Safety needs at work might include feeling safe in the actual physical environment or job security. As humans, we have the basic need to spend time with others. Esteem needs refer to the need we have to feel good about ourselves. Finally, self-actualization needs are the needs we have to better ourselves. The implications of his research tell us, for example, that as long as our physiological needs are met, increased pay may not be a motivator.

Needs might include, for example, fair pay, safety standards at work, opportunities to socialize, compliments to help raise our esteem, and training opportunities to further develop ourselves. He performed interviews in which employees were asked what pleased and displeased them about their work.

From his research, he developed the motivation-hygiene theory to explain these results. The things that satisfied the employees were motivators, while the dissatisfiers were the hygiene factors. He further said the hygiene factors were not necessarily motivators, but if not present in the work environment, they would actually cause demotivation. In other words, the hygiene factors are expected and assumed, while they may not necessarily motivate. His research showed the following as the top six motivation factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will motivate an employee, such as being given responsibility.

The following were the top six hygiene factors Part of a theory developed by Herzberg that says some things will not necessarily motivate employees but will cause dissatisfaction if not present.

The implication of this research is clear. Salary, for example, is on the hygiene factor list. On the other hand, programs to further develop us as employees, such as management training programs, would be considered a motivator. Therefore, the actual motivators tend to be the work and recognition surrounding the work performed.

His theory suggests two fundamental approaches to managing people. Theory X managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a negative approach to employee motivation. Theory Y managers According to McGregor, a type of manager who has a positive approach to employee motivation. As you can see, these two belief systems have a large variance, and managers who manage under the X theory may have a more difficult time retaining workers.

The carrot approach refers to the offering of some reward or incentive to motivate employees. Many companies use the stick approach, as in the following examples:. As you can imagine, the stick approach does little to motivate us in the long term!

While it may work for some time, constant threats and prodding do not motivate. The carrot approach might include the following:. The carrot approach normally means some incentive will occur if expectations are met. The carrot approach takes a much more positive approach to employee motivation but still may not be effective. For example, this approach can actually demotivate employees if they do not feel the goal is achievable.

Has this ever happened to you at work? Some reward was offered, but you knew it wasn't really achievable? If so, you know how this can actually be demotivating! Also, if organizations use this as the only motivational technique, ignoring physiological rewards such as career growth, this could be a detriment as well.

All the employee satisfaction theories we have discussed have implications for our own understanding of what motivates us at work. Do you know why you do the things you do? The emotional intelligence skill of self-awareness is the key to understanding your own motivations.

Motivating Employees Is Not About Carrots or Sticks

Wikipedia defines this tactic as. It is based on the idea that a cart driver might activate a reluctant horse by dangling a carrot in front of it and smacking it on the rear with a stick. The carrot might be a promise of economic aid from one nation to another, the stick might be a threat of military action. Recent studies indicate that this approach simply does not work. Kohn notes that in one study, some of the participants were promised a reward if they successfully wrote a poem. The researchers found that these participants ended up being less creative and less interested in writing the poem than if they had been promised nothing. The participants still put off doing the unappealing task despite being offered a reward for finishing early.

Leaders often rely on the carrot vs. But this is an outdated approach that never really works well. Motivation is less about employees doing great work and more about employees feeling great about their work. There is no stronger motivation for employees than an understanding that their work matters, and is relevant to someone or something other than a financial statement. Recognize that challenges can materially impact motivation. Be proactive in identifying and addressing them.


Carrot refers to rewards, which are offered or promised to individuals to act in the desired way; while stick refers to punishments which are to be inflicted on.


Carrot and Stick Approach of Motivation

This paper reports on the use of carrot positive and stick negative incentives as methods of increasing effort among members of work teams. We study teams of four members in a laboratory environment in which giving effort towards the team goal is simulated by eliciting voluntary contributions towards the provision of a public good. Our results show that both carrot and stick can increase efficiency i. We find that handicapped incentives promise the highest efficiency levels, and when handicapping is not used penalties may be more effective than prizes. The implications for work teams and suggestions for practical implementation are discussed.

No matter how effective the followership is or how hard working the workers are, a bad leadership can as well stall the objectives of any organization and make hard-workers look as if they are not working. That is the reason so much attention is paid to the quality of leadership in setting the direction for the personnel efforts and getting the goals of an organization accomplished Fiedler, Among the many leadership styles available is the carrot and stick leadership style commonly known as the transactional leadership style Kaleem, The name, carrot and stick, signifies the means by which authority is exercised and obedience is demanded.

Skip to search form Skip to main content You are currently offline. Some features of the site may not work correctly. The Bachelor thesis deals with the issues of motivation system based on rewards and punishments. In the thesis, I refer to research and experiments of various psychologists, economists and other social scientists in order to back up the arguments in favor of the theory of negative effects of extrinsic incentives on intrinsic motivation and creativity.

The Carrot vs. the Stick in Work Team Motivation

Definition: The Carrot and Stick Approach of Motivation is a traditional motivation theory that asserts, in motivating people to elicit desired behaviors, sometimes the rewards are given in the form of money, promotion, and any other financial or non-financial benefits and sometimes the punishments are exerted to push an individual towards the desired behavior. The Carrot and Stick approach of motivation is based on the principles of reinforcement and is given by a philosopher Jeremy Bentham, during the industrial revolution. This theory is derived from the old story of a donkey, the best way to move him is to put a carrot in front of him and jab him with a stick from behind.

The Motivation Paradox: Why Is a Carrot-and-Stick Approach Contraproductive

СЛЕДОПЫТ ИЩЕТ… - Следопыт? - произнес.  - Что он ищет? - Мгновение он испытывал неловкость, всматриваясь в экран, а потом принял решение. Хейл достаточно понимал язык программирования Лимбо, чтобы знать, что он очень похож на языки Си и Паскаль, которые были его стихией. Убедившись еще раз, что Сьюзан и Стратмор продолжают разговаривать, Хейл начал импровизировать. Введя несколько модифицированных команд на языке Паскаль, он нажал команду ВОЗВРАТ. Окно местоположения Следопыта откликнулось именно так, как он рассчитывал. ОТОЗВАТЬ СЛЕДОПЫТА.

В ключах никогда не бывает пробелов. Бринкерхофф громко сглотнул. - Так что вы хотите сказать? - спросил. - Джабба хотел сказать, что это, возможно, не шифр-убийца. - Конечно же, это убийца! - закричал Бринкерхофф.  - Что еще это может .

Его взял немец. Дэвид почувствовал, как пол уходит у него из-под ног. - Немец. Какой немец. - Тот, что был в парке. Я рассказал о нем полицейскому.


PDF | As much debate exists concerning the beneficial effect of using financial incentives to logical theories on human motivation and the.


3 Response
  1. Albano M.

    Referring back to carrot and the stick in the title of this article , Hertzberg implies that anybody can be made to do something when they are threatened or bribed enough.

  2. Jeanette P.

    The carrot and stick motivation approach involves creating a carrot, or reward, The carrot and stick theory can be applied effectively in the.

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