The Dangers Of Smoking And Passive Smoking Pdf

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Secondhand Smoke Kills

The U. Children are significantly affected by secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke is a known cause of low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS , asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, middle ear infection, and other diseases. Although levels of secondhand smoke exposure declined between and in the general population overall, children were the sub-group with the least rate of decline. All rights reserved.

Low Birth Weight. Secondhand smoke is a known preventable cause of low birth weight, which contributes to infant mortality and health complications into adulthood. Secondhand smoke exposure reduces the birth weight of infants of nonsmoking mothers and contributes to additional reductions in birth weight among babies of smoking mothers.

Nonsmoking pregnant women who are exposed to secondhand smoke tend to give birth to infants who have a reduced mean birth weight of 33g or more. Secondhand smoke exposure also increases the risk of a birth weight below 2,g by 22 percent. Maternal smoking is the strongest risk factor leading to SIDS. Infants who die from SIDS tend to have higher concentrations of nicotine in their lungs than do control children, regardless of whether smoking is reported. Cognitive Impairments. It is neurotoxic even at extremely low levels.

More than Higher levels of exposure to secondhand smoke are also associated with greater deficits in math and visuospatial reasoning. The offspring of mothers who smoke one pack of cigarettes per day during pregnancy have an IQ score that is, on average, 2. Behavioral Problems. Children born to women nonsmokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke during pregnancy and to women who smoked during pregnancy are more likely to suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ADHD and conduct disorder.

Girls are exposed to higher rates of secondhand smoke than boys, but boys have greater problems with hyperactivity, aggression, depression, and other behavioral problems. Respiratory Problems. Environmental Protection Agency EPA has reported that secondhand smoke exposure increases the risk of lower respiratory tract infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. The EPA estimates that between , and , annual cases of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children up to 18 months of age are attributable to secondhand smoke exposure.

Of these cases, between 7, and 15, result in hospitalization. Infants whose mothers smoke are 50 percent more likely to be hospitalized with a respiratory infection during their first year when compared to infants with nonsmoking mothers. Infants whose mothers smoke in the same room have a 56 percent higher risk of being hospitalized compared to infants whose mothers smoke in a separate room. There is a 73 percent higher risk if mothers smoke while holding their infants and a 95 percent higher risk if mothers smoke while feeding their infants.

Early exposure to cigarette smoke is a likely significant independent risk factor for subsequent respiratory disease. It is likely that in utero damage is compounded by increased susceptibility to the effects of continued postnatal secondhand smoke exposure.

Asthma attacks are perhaps the most well-known health effect of secondhand smoke exposure among children. Secondhand smoke exposure increases the frequency of episodes and the severity of symptoms in asthmatic children. The EPA estimates that , to 1,, asthmatic children have their condition worsened by exposure to secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke exposure is associated with increased respiratory-related school absenteeism among children, especially those with asthma.

Maternal and grand maternal smoking may increase the risk of childhood asthma. Relative to children of never-smokers, children whose mothers smoked throughout the pregnancy have an elevated risk of asthma in the first five years of life. Children whose mothers quit smoking prior to the pregnancy show no increased risk. Secondhand smoke exposure causes children who already have asthma to experience more frequent and severe attacks. Maternal smoking, in utero and later, is significantly related to lifetime wheezing in offspring.

Repercussions on Adult Health. Not only does in utero and childhood secondhand smoke exposure cause decreased lung function and asthma in children, but such exposure is also responsible for poor lung function and respiratory disease in adults.

Men who report postnatal secondhand smoke exposure and women who report prenatal exposure are more likely to have respiratory problems as adults. The level of secondhand smoke a child is exposed to is directly proportional to the likelihood of the child becoming a smoker as an adolescent or an adult. Moderate exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with decreased elasticity of the abdominal aorta in healthy year-old children. Altered aortic elasticity is an early marker of atherosclerosis.

SHS exposure in motor vehicles may be associated with nicotine dependence symptoms among young never-smokers. Women exposed to six or more hours of secondhand smoke a day as children and as adults have a 68 percent greater chance of having difficulty conceiving and suffering more miscarriages. There is an increased risk of failed embryo implantation among women reporting current secondhand tobacco smoke exposure. In subjects hospitalized because of early wheezing, prenatal and postnatal secondhand smoke exposure is a risk factor for asthma in early adulthood.

The connection between prenatal smoke exposure and asthma appears to be mediated via the development of bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Smoke exposure in infancy is associated with an increased risk of active smoking in early adult age, which in turn, is linked to current asthma. The adverse effects of postnatal smoking on development of airway growth may persist into early adulthood. Department of Health and Human Services.

Schober, S. Dejmek, J. Leonardi-Bee, J. McMartin, K. Yolton, K. Batty, G. Button, T. Potera, C. Environmental Protection Agency, April Blizzard, L. Prescott, S. Gilliland, F. Yu-Fhen, Li. Children are Hurt by Secondhand Smoke. Raherison, C. Svanes, C. Skorge, T. Weitzman, M. Becklake, M. Kallio, K.

Meeker, J. Goksor, E. Hayatbakhsh, M. Go to Top.

Health Risks of Secondhand Smoke

Role of active and passive smoking on lung cancer etiology in Mexico City. Passive smoking at home showed an overall OR of 1. This is explained by a lower intensity of smoking in the Mexican population. Keywords: lung cancer, cigarette smoking, odds ratio, attributable risk, epidemiologic methods, case-control; Mexico. Tobacco smoking is a well known cause of lung cancer. The proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to tobacco exposure depends basically on the magnitude of the association, measured by the odds ratio, as well as on the prevalence of smoking in a particular society. The odds ratio found in a given country depends, in turn, on the average intensity of smoking: the greater the intensity of the habit in a society, the larger the odds ratio relating smoking to lung cancer.

The U. Children are significantly affected by secondhand smoke. Secondhand smoke is a known cause of low birth weight, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS , asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, middle ear infection, and other diseases. Although levels of secondhand smoke exposure declined between and in the general population overall, children were the sub-group with the least rate of decline. All rights reserved.

Second-hand smoke: Assessing the burden of disease at national and local levels Geneva, World Health Organization, (WHO Environmental Burden of (​media/.

Secondhand Smoke

Victorian government portal for older people, with information about government and community services and programs. Type a minimum of three characters then press UP or DOWN on the keyboard to navigate the autocompleted search results. For more information on tobacco laws in Victoria, visit the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services page on tobacco reforms.

Health Effects: Children

Firsthand smoking and secondhand smoke both cause serious health effects. While directly smoking is worse, the two have similar adverse health effects. In all, at least 69 are cancerous. Over are harmful in other ways. Fluids such as blood and urine in nonsmokers might test positive for nicotine, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde.

 - Он стал калекой из-за этих бомб. И он знал про них. ГЛАВА 126 - Одна минута.

ГЛАВА 55 - Ты уселся на мое место, осел. Беккер с трудом приподнял голову. Неужели в этой Богом проклятой стране кто-то говорит по-английски. На него сверху вниз смотрел прыщавый бритоголовый коротышка.

Покажите мне. Чатрукьян заколебался. - Я не могу.

3 Response
  1. Sinorita4U

    Secondhand smoke is a mixture of the smoke that comes from the burning end of a cigarette, cigar, or pipe, and the smoke breathed out by the smoker.

  2. Albertine G.

    the danger of passive smoking came from Takeshi Hirayama's study in on lung cancer in non-smoking Japanese women married to men who smoked.

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