File Name: difference between population geography and demography .zip
The geographical study of population, including its spatial distribution, dynamics, and movement. As a subdiscipline, it has taken at least three distinct but related forms, the most recent of which appears increasingly integrated with human geography in general. The earliest and most enduring form of population geography emerged from the s onwards, as part of spatial science. Clark, and others in the USA, as well as Jacqueline Beujeau-Garnier and Pierre George in France, it focused on the systematic study of the distribution of population as a whole and the spatial variation in population characteristics such as fertility and mortality.
Relation of Demography with Other Sciences
Demography is the branch of social sciences concerned with the study of human populations, their structure and change through births, deaths, and migration , and their relationship with the natural environment and with social and economic change. Demographic indicators could include population size, population growth rate, crude birth rate, crude death rate, total fertility rate, life expectancy and infant mortality. As well, it would include estimated and projected gender and age distributions according to medium, high, low and constant fertility variants. In short, demographic changes affect all areas of human activity: economic, social, cultural and political. To a large extent, the realities of population size and growth, and of population characteristics and distribution, govern, or at least set some broad outer limits upon, what is possible for the economy and for governments and the corporate world within the economy. Those who follow this field of social science believe demographics can play a crucial role in understanding past trends and in preparing for future developments and policies. Furthermore, they believe that understanding demographic developments can provide important explanations of observed economic and social trends.
Fertility, mortality and migration are principal determinants of population growth or its inverse. In the absence of technological intervention, one might say almost the sole determinants, but improvements in contraceptive techniques, increasing acceptance of abortion, and slackening of some traditional religious and cultural traditions has in many parts of the world reduced the role of fertility. The human female is generally fertile from early teens to about mid-forties. The human male generally remains fertile throughout adulthood, though sperm count and quality diminish from middle-age onward. In the absence of a conscious effort to control the size of families, the larger the fraction of the population who are in the fertile age range the more rapid will be the population growth, and this will influence the average age of the population structure towards the younger end of the spectrum. In terms of populations rather than individuals, fertility is usually expressed using the proxy measure of birth rate, either crude or standardised for age and sex.
The interactions between human population dynamics and the environment have often been viewed mechanistically. This review elucidates the complexities and contextual specificities of population-environment relationships in a number of domains. It explores the ways in which demographers and other social scientists have sought to understand the relationships among a full range of population dynamics e. The chapter briefly reviews a number of the theories for understanding population and the environment and then proceeds to provide a state-of-the-art review of studies that have examined population dynamics and their relationship to five environmental issue areas. The review concludes by relating population-environment research to emerging work on human-environment systems.
population as part of their general enquiries into regional studies with a focus on spatial distribution, population geography as a discipline has a short history.
After reading this article you will learn about the relation of demography with other sciences. Demography is a science related with population. It studies different aspects of population like its size, density, effects of birth rate, death rate, migration, etc. Sociology is the study of social activities of man and social relations formed out of that.
Population Geography relates spatial variations in the distribution, composition, migration, and growth of populations to the terrain. Population geography involves demography in a geographical perspective. This often involves factors such as where populations are found and how the size and composition of these populations is regulated by the demographic processes of fertility , mortality , and migration. Since its inception, population geography has taken at least three distinct but related forms, the most recent of which appears increasingly integrated with human geography in general.
There is a difference between population geography and demography though both, population geography and demography, are concerned with human population and its growth over the time. Both these can be regarded as sub-study fields of Sociology. Demography is the statistical study of the human population. Demography studies the growth of population and the size, structure and distribution of this growing population. Population geography is the study of the division of humans over geographical factors.
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