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- Minore adagio marcello benedetto
- Introduction to quantum mechanics
- Dicke, Wittke - Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
It may not be re-exported from the country to which it has been consigned, and it may not be sold in the United States of America or its possessions. Library of Congress Catalog Card No.
Minore adagio marcello benedetto
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The unifying theme was his application of powerful and scrupulously controlled experimental methods to issues that really matter. Though Bob sometimes had to hide his amusement at theorists he found poorly grounded in phenomenology, he did not hesitate to speculate where the experimental ground is thin; the condition was that there had to be the possibility of a measurement that could teach us something new.
He wrote:. I have long believed that an experimentalist should not be unduly inhibited by theoretical untidiness. If he insists on having every last theoretical T crossed before he starts his research the chances are that he will never do a significant experiment. And the more significant and fundamental the experiment the more theoretical uncertainty may be tolerated.
By contrast, the more important and difficult the experiment the more that experimental care is warranted. There is no point in attempting a half-hearted experiment with an inadequate apparatus. Bob held some 50 patents, from clothes dryers to lasers. He recognized that two mirrors make a more effective laser than the traditional closed cavity of microwave technology. In the company Princeton Applied Research he and his students packaged his advances in phase-sensitive detection.
Bob predicted and experimentally showed that collisions that restrict the long-range motions of radiating atoms in a gas can suppress Doppler broadening. He contributed to the concept of adaptive optics in astronomy. He was among the first to recognize that the accepted gravity theory, general relativity, could and should be subject to more thorough tests.
His series of gravity experiments mark the beginning of the present rich network of tests. He set forth the idea 2 of the anthropic principle that now plays a large part in speculation on what our universe was doing before it was expanding. Bob's visualization of an oscillating universe stimulated the discovery of the cosmic microwave background, the most direct evidence that our universe really did expand from a dense state. A key instrument in measurements of this fossil of the Big Bang is the microwave radiometer he invented.
Bob left us a challenge: discover whether or how laboratory physics is related to the universe at large. At the turn of the century Ernst Mach argued for such a relation, that distant matter determines local inertial frames.
Mach's principle led Einstein to general relativity. In this theory the mass distribution does influence inertial motion, but it has no effect on local laboratory measurements. Bob felt Mach's principle likely expresses more than this, and he and Carl Brans 3 gave an example, a generalization of general relativity in which the expansion of the universe causes the strength of the gravitational interaction to decrease.
Experimental advances in gravity physics ruled out their approach, but the theory reappears in superstring models. And we are left. I was born in St. Louis, Missouri, in , but my earliest recollections are of Washington, D. Patent Office as a patent examiner. Later, when my father became a patent attorney for the General Railway Signal Corp.
It was there, at an age of 5, that I had my first contact with the fascination of science. An old spectacle lens fell into my possession and I was both fascinated and puzzled by its behavior. Later my childhood scientific interests ran the usual course—mechanical gadgets, insect collecting, electricity, chemistry via a "chemistry set", microscopy via an inexpensive Sears microscope, astronomy—and I read everything scientific I could get my hands on.
Bob entered the University of Rochester intending to major in engineering, it not having occurred to him that he might make a living as a physicist. He credits Lee A. Compton at Princeton University for brokering his transfer there as a junior. While at Princeton he published his first research paper, on a dynamical model of a globular star cluster as an ideal gas sphere. Bob returned to the University of Rochester for graduate work in nuclear physics.
There he courted Annie Currie; they were married in Rochester on June 6, Bob completed research for his Ph. His topic, which he had selected, was one of the first experimental studies of inelastic scattering of protons. I was happy to accept, but I didn't have a chance to serve. A few months later he asked me to join the laboratory as soon as I could get my thesis finished.
I arrived at MIT in September of A year later Annie joined Bob in Cambridge. She was not supposed to know about his classified research. Her first hint came from Bob's cousin Tom Kuenning, a pilot in the antisubmarine campaign off the New England coast. A storm during patrol forced Tom to land away from his base and, since the crew had no money, they had to stay with friends; Tom stayed with the Dickes in Cambridge. Over breakfast Tom remarked on the marvelous effect of the radar sets from the Radiation Laboratory.
The Radiation Laboratory also produced a brilliant crop of physicists, Bob notable among them for his imaginative and subtly effective approach to physics. Among the results was his microwave radiometer, which he took to Florida to demonstrate that humid air radiates strongly near 1-cm wavelength, and hence that humid air is a strong absorber at that wavelength. At the time this limited the push to shorter wavelength radar for better resolution.
Bob found time for a little pure science, using his radiometer to measure the surface temperature of the moon and to show that the space between the stars could not be warmer than 20 degrees above absolute zero. He brought his 1. I realized only later that the.
The book on quantum mechanics by him and his former student James P. Wittke was published in Beginning in , Bob turned to gravity physics in a series of elegant and searching experiments and theoretical analyses that set the stage for today's active research community. Two of the authors PJEP as a student and DTW as a postdoc remember when his Gravity Group met on Friday evenings; we complained but attended because the physics was too fascinating to miss.
He probably knew we called ourselves "Dicke birds"—it fit his quiet good humor, which kept us from taking ourselves too seriously, while always remembering that we had better take the physics very seriously. Bob was among the most imaginative of physicists. One sensed this in personal interactions, by his close attention, and support for work on anything of substance in biology, geology, astronomy, physics, or any of the other sciences.
Discussions with Bob tended to leave one feeling that science is a wonderful adventure that one could join. Bob Dicke was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in He was a member of the National Science Board from to Bob was appointed to the Princeton University Department of Physics in , served as chair from to ,.
He and Annie loved and supported each other, and Bob followed developments in science until his last moments. As one of the young stars of the Radiation Laboratory, he invented chirped radar, coherent pulse radar, and monopulse radar, all of which came into widespread use after the end of World War II. He also invented the magic tee microwave junction and the microwave radiometer, devices at the heart of radio telescopes.
The flavor of Dicke's elegant contributions to microwave radar comes through clearly in Principles of Microwave Circuits , 6 one of the classic volumes of the Radiation Laboratory Series. Characteristically, Bob was the first to make systematic and potent use of symmetry principles and scattering matrix ideas from nuclear physics to analyze waveguide junctions and other microwave devices.
Back at Princeton after the war Bob used the microwave skills he had acquired at the Radiation Laboratory to make fundamental measurements in physics. Unswayed by careless assumptions of others that because the g-value of free electrons could not be measured in an atomic beam machine there was some fundamental reason the g-value could not be measured at all,.
Bob began to generate free electrons by photoionization of sodium atoms with circularly polarized light. Unaware of Kastler's work in Paris, Bob and his student Bruce Hawkins 7 carried out one of the first optical pumping experiments—on a beam of sodium atoms. Bob understood how important narrow spectral linewidths are to precision spectroscopic measurements. He soon realized that gas-phase collisions, often a source of line broadening, could be an advantage in the right circumstances, since sufficiently rapid randomization of the thermal velocity vector would eliminate the Doppler broadening of the line.
Bob wondered about applications of these narrowing ideas to other spectral regions, but it remained for R. Fascinated by coherent microwave radiation from pulse-excited ammonia molecules, Bob conceived of the phenomenon of superradiance, where properly phased atomic systems can radiate with great intensity in narrow pencil-shaped beams.
Many years later a beautiful series of experiments in the infrared by Mike Feld and colleagues 11 at MIT confirmed the striking properties of superradiant systems that Bob had foreseen. During sabbatical leave at Harvard in —55 Bob turned to the experimental and theoretical basis for gravity physics.
That was a guide to Einstein's general relativity: A gravitational acceleration may be transformed away by going to an accelerating coordinate frame.
There were three tests of Einstein's theory. First, it agreed with the measured rate of advance of the orbit of the planet Mercury, Second, the relativistic deflection of light by a mass concentration is twice the Newtonian value. Third, in a static mass distribution the fractional shift of the wavelength of light is proportional to the gravitational potential difference through which the light moves. The balance is triangular, to suppress tidal torques, with two aluminum weights and one gold.
The orientation of the balance is measured by a light beam reflected by an optical flat to intersect a wire vibrating at 3, Hz. A servo system electrostatically torques the balance to null the fundamental period in the light passing the wire.
A difference of gravitational accelerations of aluminum and gold toward the Sun would cause the feedback voltage to the electrodes to vary with the orientation of the balance relative to the Sun. The oblateness experiment is another memorable example of effective design of an experiment to test a bold hypothesis, that the test of general relativity theory from the rate of precession of the perihelion of the orbit of the planet Mercury may be compromised by the departure from a spherical mass distribution in the Sun.
By the time of the first oblateness measurements the experimental tests of gravity theories were much improved, in large measure because of Bob's work and example, and they favored general relativity as they still do. But it was characteristic that, having set out to make this important test, Bob pushed it to the limit for a ground-based observation.
With his former students Jeffrey R. Kuhn and Kenneth G. Libbrecht the experiment was improved and moved from Princeton to Mount Wilson above Pasadena. Observations there suggested the oblate-ness varies from year to year. Bob's former colleagues Henry Hill, Kuhn, and Libbrecht are among those who have established that the solar interior indeed is a dynamic system but not in the way Bob imagined.
Introduction to quantum mechanics
Bruce R. Wheaton; Philipp Lenard and the Photoelectric Effect, Historical Studies in the Physical Sciences 1 January ; 9 — Sign In or Create an Account. User Tools. Sign In. Skip Nav Destination Article Navigation.
Wittke robert dicke - introduction quantum mechanics - AbeBooks. Robert H. Dicke Acknowledgements Department of Physics. The Teaching of Quantum Mechanics Nature. Dicke and J. Montgomery, R. Dicke All three textbooks purport to be 'introductory,' all three have merit.
Dicke, Wittke - Introduction to Quantum Mechanics
Quantum mechanics is the study of very small things. It explains the behavior of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atomic and subatomic particles. By contrast, classical physics explains matter and energy only on a scale familiar to human experience, including the behavior of astronomical bodies such as the Moon. Classical physics is still used in much of modern science and technology. However, towards the end of the 19th century, scientists discovered phenomena in both the large macro and the small micro worlds that classical physics could not explain.
Embed Size px x x x x It may not be re-exported from the country to which it has been consigned, and it may not be sold in the United States of America or its possessions. Library of Congress Catalog Card No.
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