12 Cranial Nerves And Their Functions Pdf

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Your cranial nerves are pairs of nerves that connect your brain to different parts of your head, neck, and trunk. There are 12 of them, each named for their function or structure. This is based off their location from front to back.

The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement. Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain.

Table of cranial nerves

The cranial nerves are a set of twelve nerves that originate in the brain. Each has a different function for sense or movement.

Each nerve has a name that reflects its function and a number according to its location in the brain. When a person inhales fragrant molecules, olfactory receptors within the nasal passage send the impulses to the cranial cavity, which then travel to the olfactory bulb. Specialized olfactory neurons and nerve fibers meet with other nerves, which pass into the olfactory tract.

The olfactory tract then travels to the frontal lobe and other areas of the brain that are involved with memory and notation of different smells. When light enters the eye, it hits the retina, which contains rods and cones. These are photoreceptors that translate signals from light into visual information for the brain. Cones are located in the central retina and are involved with color vision.

Rods are located in the peripheral retina and are involved with non-color vision. These photoreceptors carry signal impulses along nerve cells to form the optic nerve. Most of the fibers of the optic nerve cross into a structure called the optic chiasm. Then, the optic tract projects to the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain.

The occipital lobe is where the brain handles visual information. The oculomotor nerve helps control muscle movements of the eyes. The oculomotor nerve provides movement to most of the muscles that move the eyeball and upper eyelid, known as extraocular muscles. The trochlear nerve is also involved in eye movement.

The trochlear nerve, like the oculomotor nerve, originates in the midbrain. It powers the contralateral superior oblique muscle that allows the eye to point downward and inward.

The trigeminal nerve is the largest cranial nerve and has both motor and sensory functions. Its motor functions help a person to chew and clench the teeth and gives sensation to muscles in the tympanic membrane of the ear.

Trigeminal neuralgia is a common disorder of the trigeminal nerve that can cause intense pain and facial tics. The abducens nerve also helps control eye movements. It helps the lateral rectus muscle, which is one of the extraocular muscles, to turn the gaze outward. The facial nerve also has both motor and sensory functions. The four nuclei originate in the pons and medulla and join together to travel to the geniculate ganglion.

These fibers combine in the pons and exit the skull via the internal acoustic meatus in the temporal bone. The glossopharyngeal nerve possesses both motor and sensory functions. The glossopharyngeal nerve starts in the medulla oblongata in the brain and leaves the skull through the jugular foramen, which leads to the tympanic nerve.

The vagus nerve has a range of functions, providing motor, sensory, and parasympathetic functions. The vagus nerve is the longest cranial nerve as it starts in the medulla and extends to the abdomen. Doctors use vagus nerve stimulation therapy to treat various conditions, including epilepsy , depression , and anxiety. Learn more about the vagus nerve and stimulation therapy here. The accessory nerve provides motor function to some muscles in the neck:.

It controls the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles that allow a person to rotate, extend, and flex the neck and shoulders. The spinal component starts in the spinal cord and travels into the skull through the foramen magnum.

From there, it meets the cranial component of the accessory nerve and exits the skull along the internal carotid artery. The hypoglossal nerve is a motor nerve that supplies the tongue muscles.

Disorders of the hypoglossal nerve can cause paralysis of the tongue, most often occurring on one side. The twelve cranial nerves are a group of nerves that start in the brain and provide motor and sensory functions to the head and neck.

Speech and other forms of communication are often challenging after a stroke. Here, find strategies that have helped others and tips for friends and…. A ministroke, also known as a transient ischemic attack TIA , involves a temporary loss of blood supply to the brain. Learn more about TIAs here. The term 'adrenaline junkie' describes people who regularly partake in activities that cause an adrenaline rush, such as extreme sports. Learn more. A hemorrhagic stroke can happen when bleeding in the brain damages brain cells.

Find out how to recognize it and what to do it if happens. Migraine in children is not uncommon, and many of the symptoms are the same as migraine in adults. Learn the causes and treatments. What are the 12 cranial nerves? Medically reviewed by Elaine K. Luo, M. Olfactory nerve. Optic nerve. Oculomotor nerve. Trochlear nerve.

Trigeminal nerve. Abducens nerve. Facial nerve. Share on Pinterest The facial nerve functions to produce facial expressions. Vestibulocochlear nerve. Glossopharyngeal nerve. Vagus nerve. Accessory nerve. Share on Pinterest The accessory nerve provides motor function to the neck. Hypoglossal nerve. Probiotics for weight loss: What is the evidence?

Related Coverage. Life after stroke: Tips for recovering communication skills. Medically reviewed by Deborah Weatherspoon, Ph. What is a transient ischemic attack TIA?

Medically reviewed by Heidi Moawad, MD. What is an adrenaline junkie? What to know about hemorrhagic stroke. Medically reviewed by Seunggu Han, M. What causes migraine in children? Medically reviewed by Mia Armstrong, MD.

How to Assess the Cranial Nerves

The cranial nerves are nerves that arise from the brain and exit the skull through holes cranial foramina at its base rather than through the spinal cord. Peripheral nervous system connections with various organs and structures of the body are established through cranial nerves and spinal nerves. While some cranial nerves contain only sensory neurons, most cranial nerves and all spinal nerves contain both motor and sensory neurons. Cranial nerves are responsible for the control of a number of functions in the body. Some of these functions include directing sense and motor impulses, equilibrium control, eye movement and vision, hearing, respiration, swallowing, smelling, facial sensation, and tasting. The names and major functions of these nerves are listed below.

It has been known for over a century that these cranial nerves exist, and that they are not typographical errors nor a sensational event reported in the medical literature. A number of scientific articles on anatomy highlight how textbooks on descriptive anatomy do not always consider variables such as differences related to the geographical areas where people live, and these differences do exist. This is an important concept not only for surgeons, but also for all medical professionals who use manual techniques when treating their patients, ie, osteopaths, chiropractors, physiotherapists, and other manual therapists. This paper highlights the latest developments regarding these cranial nerves, offering at the same time some ideas for further reflection when looking at clinical scenarios that appear to bear little relationship to each other. Inclusion of these concepts in everyday anamnesis is encouraged. First discovered in in sharks and other types of fish, it was initially referred to as the nerve of pinkus.

What are the 12 cranial nerves?

V 1 ophthalmic nerve is located in the superior orbital fissure V 2 maxillary nerve is located in the foramen rotundum. V 3 mandibular nerve is located in the foramen ovale. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy: Evolution and Adaptation.

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Cranial nerves are the nerves that emerge directly from the brain including the brainstem. In contrast, spinal nerves emerge from segments of the spinal cord. Cranial nerves relay information between the brain and parts of the body, primarily to and from regions of the head and neck.

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3 Response
  1. Endaxege1950

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  2. Oliver C.

    Smell, a function of the 1st olfactory cranial nerve, is usually evaluated only after head trauma or when lesions of the anterior fossa eg, meningioma are suspected or patients report abnormal smell or taste.

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