Shaper And Slotter Machine Pdf Creator

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Old School Machines

To browse Academia. Skip to main content. By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. To learn more, view our Privacy Policy. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Akshay Venugopal. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. It gives me immense pleasure to acknowledge all those who have rendered encouragement and the support for the successful completion of work FACT Engineering and Design Organization was set up on 24th July to meet the emerging need for indigenous capabilities in vital areas of Engineering, Design and Consultancy for establishing large and modern fertilizer plants.

FEDO offers services from project identification and evaluation stage to plant design, procurement, project management, site supervision and commissioning of new plants as well as revamping and modernization of old plants. FACT Engineering Works was established on 13 th April as a unit to fabricate and install equipments for fertilizer plants. Over the years FEW developed capabilities in the fabrication of pressure vessels and heat exchangers.

FEW have also undertaken lying of cross country piping and fabrication and installation of large penstocks of hydelprojects. FACT, one of the only two manufactures of this product in India, has the capacity to produce 50, tonnes of Caprolactam in a year.

FACT's Caprolactam exported to various countries including in USA, not only earns precious foreign exchange, but also appreciation on account of its excellent quality. The Caprolactam Plant also produces 2,25, tonnes of Ammonium Sulphate per year as co-product and small quantities of Soda Ash and Nitric Acid as by products.

It has excellent physical properties; nonhygroscopic, crystalline and free flowing. It is ideal as a straight nitrogenous fertilizer and also as an ingredient in fertilizer mixtures. It is the most widely preferred nitrogenous fertilizer for top dressing on all crops. This second collection of SO2 is very attractive as it is utilising the by-products of other processes and reduces emissions and waste.

Furnace or Burner Only necessary if raw sulfur is usedAir is cleaned by electrostatic precipitation, dried then heated to approx. Pure liquid sulphur is sprayed under pressure into the furnace, reacting with the oxygen in the air. If so this stage can be skipped. The converterThe converter contains trays or layers of porous pellets of a catalyst, vanadium V oxide V 2 O 5. The sulphur dioxide reacts with more air to form sulphur trioxide.

This reaction is reversible and reaches equilibrium. It is also an exothermic reaction and the temperature will rise to over o C. The mixture is continuously cooled to o C between each tray. To counter this the gases are allowed to cool slightly before they pass over the next layer of catalyst, by carefully controlling the process almost all sulphur dioxide is converted to sulphur trioxide The absorption towerSulphur trioxide will dissolve in water to form our final goal of sulphuric acid.

However it is violently exothermic and usually results in a mist of sulphuric acid droplets that are very difficult to control. In practice the sulphur trioxide dissolves almost completely and is bubbled through concentrated sulphuric acid The principal machines in the workshop are briefly described in the following section: LATHE MACHINE:Lathe is the most commonly used machine of workshop.

A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, turning, threading, grooving, and knurling, drilling, boring, chamfering, facing with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. Lathes are used in woodcutting, metalworking, metal spinning, and glass working. Most suitably equipped metalworking lathes can also be used to produce most solids of revolution, plane surfaces and screw threads or helices.

Moreover, eccentric jobs can be performed in this lathe machines. Shafts of different sizes with varying cross section can be machined with the help of a lathe machine.

It can cut curves, angles and many other shapes. It is analogous to that of a lathe, except that is archetypal linear instead of helical. Shapers are mainly classified as standard, draw cut, and horizontal, universal, vertical, geared, crank, hydraulic, contour and travelling head.

The horizontal arrangement is the most common. Vertical shapers are generally fitted with a rotary table to enable curved surfaces to be machined. The cutting action of the tool is only during the downward stroke.

The slotter machine can be used on any type of work where vertical tool movement is considered essential and advantageous. The single point cutting tool held properly in the tool post is mounted on a reciprocating ram.

The reciprocating motion of the ram is obtained by a quick return mechanism. As the ram reciprocates, the tool cuts the materials during its forward stoke. During return stoke there is no cutting action and the stroke is called the idle stroke.

The forward and return stroke constitute one operating cycle of the shaper. The quick return mechanism is understood with the help of the following diagram. This mechanism is made of a diving crank and of a driven slider crank.

In the considered configuration, the fixed pivot of the driven crank is located on the outside of the circle on which the end of driving crank moves. The leads to an alternated motion of the slider crank. The angular speed of the driven crank is variable. The duration of the motion for its part corresponding to the blue arc AB clockwise is shorter than the one related to the red arc AB anticlockwise. This is why this device is named as Quick Return Mechanism, which was used in crank shapers, with the slow part or the stroke being used for the working time of the tool and the quick part for the non-productive time.

With various attachments milling machine can be used for boring, slotting, circular milling, dividing and drilling. This machine can also be used for cutting keyways, racks and gears and for fluting taps and reamers.

Milling operates on the principle of rotary motion. A milling cutter is spun about an axis while a work piece is advanced through it in such a way that the blades of the cutter are able to shave chips of material with each pass. Milling processes are designed such that the cutter makes many individual cuts on the material in a single run, this may be accomplished by using a cutter with many teeth, spinning the cutter at high speed, or advancing the material through the cutter slowly.

Most often it is some combination of the three. The speed at which the piece advances through the cutter is called feed rate, or just feed; it is most often measured in length of material per full revolution of the cutter. Holes of different diameters can be produced using drills of different sizes. A drilling machine, called a drill press, is used to cut holes into or through metal, wood, or other materials. Drilling machines use a drilling tool that has cutting edges at its point. This cutting tool is held in the drill press by a chuck or Morse taper and is rotated and fed into the work at variable speeds.

Drilling machines may be used to perform other operations like countersinking, boring, counter boring, spot facing, reaming and tapping. A horizontal boring machine is a machine tool which bore holes in a horizontal direction. Horizontal boring machines are often heavy-duty industrial machines used for roughing out large components but there are high precision models too. Boring is used to achieve a greater accuracy of the diameter of a hole, and can be used to cut a tapered hole.

Boring can be viewed as an internal diameter counterpart to turning, which cuts internal diameters. This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material the weld pool that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld.

This is in contrast with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower melting point material between the work pieces to form a bond between them, without melting the work pieces. All in all the training at FACT was a lifetime experience which lends me the opportunity to get an on hand experience of how this govt. I place my sincere thanks to Mr. I would also like to thank Mr. George Varghese and Mr. The 2nd stage of expansion of FACT was completed in It is ideal for application on all soils and all crops.

In addition, FACT prepares special tailor made fertilizer mixtures of any required grade for plantation crops like coffee, tea, rubber, etc. FACT mixtures are superior in quality with the presence of ammonical nitrogen, water soluble phosphorus, and other major nutrients like sulphur, calcium, etc. The entire N is in ammonical form and P is completely water soluble. So it is known as the universal type boring machine.

Related Papers. By akshay venugopal. Manufacturing Processes. By Prince Raj. By puni venkat. By Ahmed Raza. By i am hero. Download file. Remember me on this computer.

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A milling machine is one of the most influential and versatile kinds of machines found in the manufacturing industry. Milling is the most widely used machine used in machine shops and modern manufacturing industries all over the world. It is a type of machining process in which a cutter having multiple cutting edges is used to remove the material from the workpiece. This machine tool makes up about 85 percent of the all material removal process. The milling machine is believed to come into existence in 17 the century.

Crank Shaft Grinder Machine

Such shaper is called a horizontal shaper. Shaper is a machine tool used primarily for:.

Machine Tools for Machining

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Handbook of Manufacturing Engineering and Technology pp Cite as. Machining operations are among the most versatile and accurate manufacturing processes in terms of its capability to produce diverse and complex geometric features. This chapter takes its focus on the machining processes utilizing sharp cutting tools to remove materials from the workpiece by shear deformation. The main principle of these processes is providing the relative motions between the cutting tool and the workpiece, which is accomplished through machine tools. The machine tools are discussed and categorized based on the employed cutting tools: single-point cutting tools, multipoint cutting tools, or grinding wheels. Machining centers, which have flexibilities to perform various machining operations with different cutting tools on more than one workpiece, are also discussed. Drives and controls are responsible to respectively provide and regulate the motions of the machine tool components.

SHAPER MACHINE - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or view Planer or planing machine is a machine tool, which like the.


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BY I, [1. This invention relates to machine tools of the general type adapted to perform rectilinear cutting, slotting, breaching and like machining operations by successive endwise reciprocative strokes of an appropriate powered tool such as a broach, and to machines adapted also to feed or adjust as well as to hold the work relative to the stroking path of the reciprocative tool. The present improvements particularly concern an attachment for performing the above described work which can be mounted detachably on the frame standard of a milling machine such as usually incorporates a work holding table movably mounted for feeding work carried thereby selectively in any of three different paths of movement with respect to the machine standard. The invention as illustrated herein also resides in the slotting attachment, per se, including its reciprocative tool, as a unit that may be used instead of or in conjunction with a milling attachment having a rotary power tool as disclosed in a U. Patent No.

5. Shapers and slotters