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- Brock And Staples My Personal Values Assessment
- Charles Staples - Phthalate Esters (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry) (2003, Springer)(1)
- Biomonitoring Summary
- Brock And Staples Personal Values Assessment
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Brock And Staples My Personal Values Assessment
Phthalates are industrial chemicals that are added to plastics to impart flexibility and resilience and are often referred to as plasticizers.
Phthalates also are used as solubilizing or stabilizing agents in other applications. There are numerous products that may contain phthalates: adhesives; automotive plastics; detergents; lubricating oils; some medical devices and pharmaceuticals; plastic raincoats; solvents; vinyl tiles and flooring; and personal-care products, such as soap, shampoo, deodorants, lotions, fragrances, hair spray, and nail polish. Phthalates are often used in polyvinyl chloride type plastics, such as plastic packaging film and sheet, garden hoses, inflatable recreational toys, blood product storage bags, intravenous medical tubing, and toys ATSDR, , Because they are not chemically bound to the plastics to which they are added, phthalates can be released into the environment during use or disposal of the product.
Various phthalate esters have been measured in specific foods, indoor and ambient air, indoor dust, water sources, and sediments Clark et al. People are exposed through ingestion, inhalation, and, to a lesser extent, dermal contact with products that contain phthalates.
For the general population, dietary sources have been considered as the major exposure route, followed by inhaling indoor air.
Infants may have relatively greater exposures from ingesting indoor dust containing some phthalates Clark et al. Human milk can be a source of phthalate exposure for nursing infants Calafat et al. The intravenous or parenteral exposure route can be important in patients undergoing medical procedures involving devices or materials containing phthalates.
In settings where workers may be exposed to higher air phthalate concentrations than the general population, urinary metabolite and air phthalate concentrations are roughly correlated Liss et al. Phthalates are metabolized and excreted quickly and do not accumulate in the body Anderson et al. Ingested phthalate diesters are initially hydrolyzed in the intestine to the corresponding monoesters, which are then absorbed Albro et al. Absorbed monoester metabolites are usually oxidized in the body and, in humans, excreted in urine largely as glucuronide conjugates Albro et al.
The table shows the phthalate diesters, corresponding monoester metabolites, and other oxidized metabolites included in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals CDC, Human health effects from phthalates at low environmental doses or at biomonitored levels from low environmental exposures are unknown. Phthalates have low acute animal toxicity.
In chronic rodent studies, several of the phthalates produced testicular injury, liver injury, liver cancer, and teratogenicity, but these effects either have not been demonstrated when tested in non-human primates or are yet to be studied. In vitro studies showed that certain phthalates can bind to estrogen receptors and may have weak estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity Coldham et al. In animals, phthalates produced anti-androgenic effects by reducing testosterone production and, at very high levels, reducing estrogen production, effects that may be mediated by inhibiting testicular and ovarian steroidogenesis.
High doses of diethylhexyl phthalate DEHP , dibutyl phthalate DBP , and benzylbutyl phthalate BzBP during the fetal period produced lowered testosterone levels, testicular atrophy, and Sertoli cell abnormalities in the male animals and, at higher doses, ovarian abnormalities in the female animals Jarfelt et al. Phthalate urinary metabolite levels in men evaluated at an infertility clinic were associated with several measures of sperm function and morphology Duty et al.
The monoester metabolites are thought to mediate toxic effects for some of the phthalates, but there are known species-related differences in the hydrolysis of diester phthalates, efficiency of intestinal absorption, and extent of metabolite conjugation to glucuronide Albro et al.
Also, phthalates have been shown to induce peroxisomal proliferation in rodents, which may be a pathway to the development of liver toxicity and cancers in these animals. However, peroxisomal proliferation may not be a relevant pathway in humans Rusyn et al. Information about external exposure i. Urinary levels of phthalate metabolites reflect recent exposure to the parent phthalate diester. The proportions of each metabolite for a given phthalate may vary by differing routes of exposure Liss et al.
Variation occurs from person to person in the proportions or amounts of a metabolite excreted after similar doses Anderson et al.
Finding a measurable amount of one or more phthalate metabolites in urine does not imply that the levels of the metabolites or the parent phthalate cause an adverse health effect. Biomonitoring studies on levels of phthalate metabolites provide physicians and public health officials with reference values so that they can determine whether people have been exposed to higher levels of phthalates than are found in the general population.
Biomonitoring data can also help scientists plan and conduct research on exposure and health effects. Dimethyl phthalate DMP is used in manufacturing solid rocket propellant and consumer products such as insect repellents and plastics. Females had higher levels than males CDC, Finding a measurable amount of MMP in urine does not imply that the levels of MMP or the parent compound cause an adverse health effect.
Biomonitoring studies on levels of urinary MMP provide physicians and public health officials with reference values so that they can determine whether people have been exposed to higher levels of DMP than are found in the general population.
Toxicological profile for di-n-butyl phthalate update [online]. September Toxicological profile for di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate update [online]. Pharmacokinetics, interactions with macromolecules and species differences in metabolism of DEHP. Environ Health Perspect ; Metabolism of di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Drug Metab Rev ; A biomarker approach to measuring human dietary exposure to certain phthalate diesters. Food Addit Contam ;18 12 Automated solid phase extraction and quantitative analysis of human milk for 13 phthalate metabolites.
J Chromatogr B ; Updated Tables , Assessment of critical exposure pathways. Evaluation of a recombinant yeast cell estrogen screening assay. Environ Health Perspect ; Determination of four metabolites of the plasticizer di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate in human urine samples.
Int Arch Occup Environ Health ;64 8 The relationship between environmental exposure to phthalates and computer-aided sperm analysis motion parameters. J Androl ;25 2 Occurrence and daily variation of phthalate metabolites in the urine of an adult population.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; The estrogenic activity of phthalate esters in vitro. Temporal variability of urinary phthalate metabolite levels in men of reproductive age [published erratum appears in Environ Health Perspect ; 17 ].
Environ Health Perspect ; 17 DNA damage in human sperm is related to urinary levels of phthalate monoester and oxidative metabolites.
Hum Reprod ;22 3 Reproducibility of urinary phthalate metabolites in first morning urine samples. Environ Health Perspect ; 5 Antiandrogenic effects in male rats perinatally exposed to a mixture of di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate and di 2-ethylhexyl adipate.
Reprod Toxicol ;19 4 A variety of environmentally persistent chemicals including some phthalate plasticizers are weakly estrogenic. Urinary phthalate metabolites and biomarkers of reproductive function in young men.
Epidemiol ;16 4 Blood burden of di 2-ethylhexylphthalate DEHP and its primary metabolite mono 2-ethylhexyl phthalate MEHP in pregnant and non-pregnant rats and marmosets. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol ; Urine phthalate determinations as an index of occupational exposure to phthalic anhydride and di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate. Scand J Work Environ Health ;11 5 Mechanisms of phthalate ester toxicity in the female reproductive system.
Environ Health Perspect ; 2 NTP center for the evaluation of risks to human reproduction reports on phthalates: addressing the data gaps [review]. Reprod Toxicol ;18 1 Relative potency of xenobiotic estrogens in an acute in vivo mammalian assay.
Environ Health Perspect ; 1 Determination of phthalate monoesters in human milk, consumer milk, and infant formula by tandem mass spectrometry LC-MS-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem ; Phthalate ester exposure—air levels and health of workers processing polyvinylchloride. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J ;46 11 Research Triangle Park NC. Estimation of estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activities of some phthalate diesters and monoesters by MCF-7 cell proliferation assay in vitro.
Biol Pharm Bull ;26 8 Decreased serum free testosterone in workers exposed to high levels of di-n-butyl phthalate DBP and diethylhexyl phthalate DEHP : a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health Perspect ; 11 The plasticizer diethylhexyl phthalate induces malformations by decreasing fetal testosterone synthesis during sexual differentiation in the male rat. Toxicol Sci ; Toxic potential of the plasticizer di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate in the context of its disposition and metabolism in primates and man.
Comparative pharmacokinetics and subacute toxicity of di 2-ethylhexyl phthalate DEHP in rats and marmosets: Extrapolation of effects in rodents to man. Modes of action and species-specific effects of di- 2-ethylhexyl phthalate in the liver. Crit Rev Toxicol ; Urinary levels of seven phthalate metabolites in the U.
Environ Health Perspect ; 3 Examination of the in vitro and in vivo estrogenic activities of eight commercial phthalate esters. Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link.
Charles Staples - Phthalate Esters (Handbook of Environmental Chemistry) (2003, Springer)(1)
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Brock And Staples Personal Values Assessment
The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry Vol. Marian K. Staples 3. The esters of 1,2-benzene dicarboxylic acid, commonly called phthalate esters, are a diverse. Such data are critical for the development of safe and accepted production.
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