Latest Invention On Science And Technology 2015 Pdf

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Gone with the headwinds: Global Productivity. The acquisition and commercialization of invention in American manufacturing: Incidence and impact.

Why is it so hard to build and maintain the capacity to innovate? The reason is not simply a failure to execute but a failure to articulate an innovation strategy that aligns innovation efforts with the overall business strategy. Without such a strategy, companies will have a hard time weighing the trade-offs of various practices—such as crowdsourcing and customer co-creation—and so may end up with a grab bag of approaches.

List of emerging technologies

The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical review of the educational innovation field in the USA. It outlines classification of innovations, discusses the hurdles to innovation, and offers ways to increase the scale and rate of innovation-based transformations in the education system. US education badly needs effective innovations of scale that can help produce the needed high-quality learning outcomes across the system. The primary focus of educational innovations should be on teaching and learning theory and practice, as well as on the learner, parents, community, society, and its culture.

Technology applications need a solid theoretical foundation based on purposeful, systemic research, and a sound pedagogy. One of the critical areas of research and innovation can be cost and time efficiency of the learning.

Several practical recommendations stem out of this paper: how to create a base for large-scale innovations and their implementation; how to increase effectiveness of technology innovations in education, particularly online learning; how to raise time and cost efficiency of education.

Innovations in education are regarded, along with the education system, within the context of a societal supersystem demonstrating their interrelations and interdependencies at all levels. Raising the quality and scale of innovations in education will positively affect education itself and benefit the whole society. Originality is in the systemic approach to education and educational innovations, in offering a comprehensive classification of innovations; in exposing the hurdles to innovations, in new arguments about effectiveness of technology applications, and in time efficiency of education.

Serdyukov, P. Anyone may reproduce, distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article for both commercial and non-commercial purposes , subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. Education, being a social institution serving the needs of society, is indispensable for society to survive and thrive.

It should be not only comprehensive, sustainable, and superb, but must continuously evolve to meet the challenges of the fast-changing and unpredictable globalized world.

This evolution must be systemic, consistent, and scalable; therefore, school teachers, college professors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers are expected to innovate the theory and practice of teaching and learning, as well as all other aspects of this complex organization to ensure quality preparation of all students to life and work.

Here we present a systemic discussion of educational innovations, identify the barriers to innovation, and outline potential directions for effective innovations. We discuss the current status of innovations in US education, what educational innovation is, how innovations are being integrated in schools and colleges, why innovations do not always produce the desired effect, and what should be done to increase the scale and rate of innovation-based transformations in our education system.

We then offer recommendations for the growth of educational innovations. As examples of innovations in education, we will highlight online learning and time efficiency of learning using accelerated and intensive approaches.

For an individual, a nation, and humankind to survive and progress, innovation and evolution are essential. Innovations in education are of particular importance because education plays a crucial role in creating a sustainable future. Innovation, therefore, is to be regarded as an instrument of necessary and positive change. Any human activity e. The need for educational innovations has become acute.

In the USA, underlying pressure to innovate comes from political, economic, demographic, and technological forces from both inside and outside the nation. Further, it is irrefutable that the country has made limited improvement on most educational outcomes over the last several decades, especially when considered in the context of the increased investment over the same period.

In fact, the total cost of producing each successful high school and college graduate has increased substantially over time instead of decreasing — creating what some argue is an inverted learning curve […]. Yet, something does not work here. Lack of innovation can have profound economic and social repercussions. Hence it is central for us to make US education consistently innovative and focus educational innovations on raising the quality of learning at all levels.

Suffice it to mention a few facts. Program for International Student Assessment PISA evaluations keep revealing disappointing results for our middle school Pew Research Center, ; a large number of high school graduates are not ready for college College preparedness, ; and employers, in turn, are often dissatisfied with college graduates Thomson, ; Jaschik, No one, be they students, parents, academia, business, or society as a whole, are pleased with these outcomes. Could it be that our education system is not sufficiently innovative?

Education is probably the single most important function in our society today, yet it remains one of the least understood, despite incredible levels of investment from venture capitalists and governments. Why do students continue to show up in a classroom or start an online course? How do we guide students to the right knowledge just as they need to learn it? We may have an empirical inkling and some hunches, but we still lack any fundamental insights.

That is truly disappointing. With the rise of the internet, it seemed like education was on the cusp of a complete revolution. USA success has always been driven by innovation and has a unique capacity for growth Zeihan, Nevertheless, it is indeed a paradox: while the USA produces more research, including in education, than any other country Science Watch, , we do not see much improvement in the way our students are prepared for life and work.

Yet, has this theory yielded any innovative approaches for the teaching and learning practice that have increased learning productivity and improved the quality of the output? The USA is the home of the computer and the internet, but has the information revolution helped to improve the quality of learning outcomes? Where and how, then, are all these educational innovations applied? What is interesting here is that while we are still undecided as to what to do with our struggling schools and universities and how to integrate into them our advanced inventions, other nations are already benefiting from our innovations and have in a short time successfully built world-class education systems.

It is ironic that an admirable Finnish success was derived heavily from US educational research. Singapore, South Korea, China, and other forward-looking countries also learned from great US educational ideas. We cannot say that US educators and society are oblivious to the problems in education: on the contrary, a number of educational movements have taken place in recent US history e. Excellent books have been written by outstanding innovators such as Andy Hargreaves , Hargreaves and Shirley , Hargreaves et al.

And still, innovations do not take hold in American classrooms on a wide scale, which may leave the nation behind in global competition. It looks like the issue of educational innovation goes beyond the field itself and requires a strong societal response.

Three big questions arise from this discussion: why, having so many innovators and organizations concerned with innovations, does our education system not benefit from them?

What interferes with creating and, especially, implementing transformative, life-changing, and much-needed innovations across schools and colleges in this country? How can we grow, support, and disseminate worthy innovations effectively so that our students succeed in both school and university and achieve the best learning outcomes that will adequately prepare them for life and work?

Let us first take a look at what is an educational innovation. To innovate is to look beyond what we are currently doing and develop a novel idea that helps us to do our job in a new way. The purpose of any invention, therefore, is to create something different from what we have been doing, be it in quality or quantity or both. To produce a considerable, transformative effect, the innovation must be put to work, which requires prompt diffusion and large-scale implementation.

Thus, innovation requires three major steps: an idea, its implementation, and the outcome that results from the execution of the idea and produces a change. In education, innovation can appear as a new pedagogic theory, methodological approach, teaching technique, instructional tool, learning process, or institutional structure that, when implemented, produces a significant change in teaching and learning, which leads to better student learning.

Efficiency is generally determined by the amount of time, money, and resources that are necessary to obtain certain results. In education, efficiency of learning is determined mainly by the invested time and cost. Learning is more efficient if we achieve the same results in less time and with less expense. Productivity is determined by estimating the outcomes obtained vs the invested effort in order to achieve the result.

Thus, if we can achieve more with less effort, productivity increases. Hence, innovations in education should increase both productivity of learning and learning efficiency. Educational innovations emerge in various areas and in many forms. There are innovations in instructional techniques or delivery systems, such as the use of new technologies in the classroom. There are innovations in the way teachers are recruited, and prepared, and compensated.

Innovation can be directed toward progress in one, several, or all aspects of the educational system: theory and practice, curriculum, teaching and learning, policy, technology, institutions and administration, institutional culture, and teacher education. It can be applied in any aspect of education that can make a positive impact on learning and learners.

In a similar way, educational innovation concerns all stakeholders: the learner, parents, teacher, educational administrators, researchers, and policy makers and requires their active involvement and support. When considering the learners, we think of studying cognitive processes taking place in the the brain during learning — identifying and developing abilities, skills, and competencies.

These include improving attitudes, dispositions, behaviors, motivation, self-assessment, self-efficacy, autonomy, as well as communication, collaboration, engagement, and learning productivity. To raise the quality of teaching, we want to enhance teacher education, professional development, and life-long learning to include attitudes, dispositions, teaching style, motivation, skills, competencies, self-assessment, self-efficacy, creativity, responsibility, autonomy to teach, capacity to innovate, freedom from administrative pressure, best conditions of work, and public sustenance.

As such, we expect educational institutions to provide an optimal academic environment, as well as materials and conditions for achieving excellence of the learning outcomes for every student program content, course format, institutional culture, research, funding, resources, infrastructure, administration, and support.

Education is nourished by society and, in turn, nourishes society. The national educational system relies on the dedication and responsibility of all society for its effective functioning, thus parental involvement, together with strong community and society backing, are crucial for success.

A national education system is commonly the product of a distinctive set of historical, political, social, cultural, and economic effects. As it is a complete system, its different areas are not only interrelated and interdependent but act together. Subsequently, any change in one of them may generate a change in others.

Though these innovations left a significant mark on education, which of them helped improve productivity and quality of learning? Under NCLB, we placed too much focus on accountability and assessment and lost sight of many other critical aspects of education. In drawing too much attention to technology innovations, we may neglect teachers and learners in the process.

Reforming higher education without reforming secondary education is futile. Trying to change education while leaving disfunctional societal and cultural mechanisms intact is doomed. Many of us educators naively believe grand reforms or powerful technologies will transform our education system. Did we not expect NCLB to change our schools for the better? Did we not hope that new information technologies would make education more effective and relieve teachers from tedious labor?

However, again and again we realize that neither loud reforms nor wondrous technology will do the hard work demanded of teachers and learners. Innovations can be categorized as evolutionary or revolutionary Osolind, , sustaining or disruptive Christensen and Overdorf, ; Yu and Hang, Sustaining innovation perpetuates the current dimensions of performance e.

Innovations can also be tangible e. Evolutionary and revolutionary innovations seem to have the same connotation as sustaining and disruptive innovations, respectively. When various innovations are being introduced in the conventional course of study, for instance Universal Design of Learning Meyer et al. This is an evolutionary change. It partially improves the existing instructional approach to result in better learning.

Such learning methods as inquiry based, problem based, case study, and collaborative and small group are evolutionary innovations because they change the way students learn.

Latest Science and Technology Current Affairs PDF – SSC & Bank Exams

The strategic use and management of Intellectual Property IP — in business as well as in international research initiatives — is essential for strengthening the European scientific and technological base, boosting innovation and ensuring growth in the EU. In this context the new EU Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, Horizon , places even more emphasis on systematic IP exploitation strategies as a means to better protect innovation initiatives and to reap commercial and economic benefits from EU-funded research. Therefore this IP training event will address the overall topic of how to create value through professional management and exploitation of IP. Following a very practical and comprehensive training approach, participants will be introduced to central concepts and strategies of how to turn intellectual assets into value-creating innovations. Event costs: The event is free of charge. However, a registration is mandatory.


by Mikko Packalen and Jay Bhattacharya. create superior opportunities for invention, their adoption as research inputs in the invention process We first propose a new way to identify idea inputs in technological innovation. embedded file here (click to open an internal PDF file; does not access the internet).


You Need an Innovation Strategy

Emerging technologies are those technical innovations that represent progressive innovations within a field for competitive advantage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikimedia list article. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.

The purpose of this paper is to present an analytical review of the educational innovation field in the USA.

I. Introduction

Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Help expand a public dataset of research that support the SDGs. We recognize the need to encourage and disseminate We recognize the need to encourage and disseminate the creation and development of new innovative products, technologies and ideas that improve our environment. Sectors of impact include soil, air, water and food in both rural and urban landscapes. The journal represents a platform for disseminating the fundamental scientific evidence for environmental protection and sustainable development. The journal brings together excellent natural sciences, which underpin the understanding, development and application of technologies, to deliver a sustainable future.

Innovation in education: what works, what doesn’t, and what to do about it?

Stories, practices, and politics of science and governance on the agricultural gene editing frontier. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene 1 January ; 8 9. Many trends in agricultural biotechnology have extended fluidly from the first era of genetic modification using recombinant DNA techniques to the era of gene editing. But the high-profile, explicit, and assertive discourse of democratization with gene editing — especially CRISPR-Cas9 — is something new.

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  1. Thelma L.

    The OECD National Experts on Science and Technology Indicators. (NESTI) recently oversaw compatibility with other statistics and new statistical guidance on. R&D tax million. In , there were more than million SIM cards for uicheritagegarden.org Shares of.

  2. Periandro F.

    programmes, UNCTAD and the UN Commission for Science and Technology for Development, which we service, have an non-technological and new forms of social innovation). – could be Issuespaper_Theme1_Post_uicheritagegarden.org (​accessed on. 15 March Invented three decades ago, 3D printing has become a viable.

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