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- Beyond Theory Y
- Theory X and Theory Y
- Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y
During the past 30 years, managers have been bombarded with two competing approaches to the problems of human administration and organization.
Beyond Theory Y
The paper identifies major management approaches cited by McGregor as being examples of his Theory Y management principles. The paper traces the historical development of each of these approaches and their application today. This paper reviews McGregor's original article, then traces the historical development and application of McGregor's major concepts through the identification and review of relevant historical and contemporary literature. Major findings provide strong evidence that McGregor's Theory Y concepts and related management approaches have grown in application, are closely related to appreciative inquiry and social construction. There is also evidence that McGregor's concept of management may be universal and has application across national cultural boundaries. The findings indicate that McGregor's concepts have widespread acceptance and application today, and have been systematically and empirically related to organizational success and effectiveness. More important, however, are the enormous implications related to the growing body of empirical evidence that these concepts have universal application considering the continued movement toward globalization.
Theory X is the belief that employees are motivated by pay and they need supervision to make sure they get their work done. Theory Y is the opposite: employees are motivated by the work itself, finding autonomy, meaning, and gaining a sense of accomplishment from the work. Those that worked for a manager that believed in Theory X tended to need more supervision, while those who worked for a manager that believed in Theory Y were motivated by the work and their love of the job. The result is that employees act the way they are expected to act and become the kind of worker that their manager expects them to be. An anonymous comment from a recent employee engagement survey we conducted for one of our clients describes the impact of a Theory Y management style:. I would prefer to be evaluated based on production rather than how well I fill out software programs.
Theory X and Theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y are theories of human work motivation and management. The two theories proposed by McGregor describe contrasting models of workforce motivation applied by managers in human resource management , organizational behavior , organizational communication and organizational development. Theory X explains the importance of heightened supervision, external rewards, and penalties, while Theory Y highlights the motivating role of job satisfaction and encourages workers to approach tasks without direct supervision. Management use of Theory X and Theory Y can affect employee motivation and productivity in different ways, and managers may choose to implement strategies from both theories into their practices. McGregor also believed that self-actualization was the highest level of reward for employees. Theory X is based on assumptions regarding the typical worker.
PDF | Douglas McGregor's landmark book, The Human Side of Enterprise, changed the path of management Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Y: Toward a Construct-Valid Measure For example, in his book review. of.
Managerial Belief Systems: Douglas McGregor’s Theory X vs Theory Y
In , Douglas McGregor formulated Theory X and Theory Y suggesting two aspects of human behaviour at work, or in other words, two different views of individuals employees : one of which is negative, called as Theory X and the other is positive, so called as Theory Y. According to McGregor, the perception of managers on the nature of individuals is based on various assumptions. Thus, he encouraged cordial team relations, responsible and stimulating jobs, and participation of all in decision-making process. View All Articles. Similar Articles Under - Motivation.
Theory X and Theory Y are still referred to commonly in the field of management and motivation, and whilst more recent studies have questioned the rigidity of the model, Mcgregor's X-Y Theory remains a valid basic principle from which to develop positive management style and techniques. McGregor's XY Theory remains central to organisational development, and to improving organisational culture. McGregor's X-Y theory is a salutary and simple reminder of the natural rules for managing people, which under the pressure of day-to-day business are all too easily forgotten. Perhaps the most noticeable aspects of McGregor's XY Theory - and the easiest to illustrate - are found in the behaviours of autocratic managers and organisations which use autocratic management styles. Typically characteristics for an X-Theory manager are most or all of these:.
Терпение Стратмора иссякло. Он взорвался: - Сьюзан, выслушай. Я вызвал тебя сюда, потому что мне нужен союзник, а не следователь. Сегодня у меня было ужасное утро. Вчера вечером я скачал файл Танкадо и провел у принтера несколько часов, ожидая, когда ТРАНСТЕКСТ его расколет.
Стратмор даже не пошевелился. - Коммандер. Нужно выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ. У нас… - Он нас сделал, - сказал Стратмор, не поднимая головы. - Танкадо обманул всех .